Abstract

Using mass spectrometry we have confirmed that Sr2+ ions are produced from laser-populated Rydberg states by the associative ionization process Sr(5snl) + Sr(5s2) → Sr2+ + e. Dimer ion signal was detected for the 5s6d3D2 level, indicating that the binding energy of Sr2+ exceeds 0.77 eV. We have observed that under certain conditions the Rydberg states are destroyed by electron-impact ionization before an associative ionization collision can occur.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. L. Arnot, M. B. M’Ewen, “The formation of helium molecules,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 166, 543–551 (1938); “The formation of helium molecules II,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 171, 106–120 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. A. Hornbeck, J. P. Molnar, “Mass spectrometric studies of molecular ions in the noble gases,” Phys. Rev. 84, 621 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. L. Mohler, C. Boeckner, “Photoionization of cesium by line absorption,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 5, 51–71 (1930).
  4. A. Fontijn, “Recent progress in chemi-ionization kinetics,” Pure Appl. Chem. 39, 287–306 (1974); AeroChem Research Laboratories, Princeton, N.J., personal communication (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Gornik, “Lifetime measurements of highly excited levels of Sr i using stepwise excitation by two pulsed dye lasers,” Z. Phys. A 283, 231–234 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Esherick, “Bound, even parity J = 0 and J = 2 spectra of Sr,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920–1936 (1977); Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., personal communication (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. We have also observed associative ionization for the 5snp1P1 series using the three-step excitation process:Sr(5s S210)→λ1Sr(5s5pP31)→λ2Sr(5s6sS31)→λ3Sr(5snpP1).The investigation was less extensive than for the ns and nd series.
  9. B. Liu, R. E. Olson, “Potential energies and scattering cross sections for Ca+ + Ca,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
  10. W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, R. M. Hill, “Doubly exited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. C. Percival, “Cross sections for collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms and hydrogen-like ions,” Nucl. Fusion 6, 182–187 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Schiavone, D. E. Donohue, D. R. Herrick, R. S. Freund, “Electron-impact excitation of helium: cross sections, n, and distributions of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 48–61 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J.-F. Delpech, J. Boulmer, F. Devos, “Transitions between Rydberg levels of helium induced by electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1400–1403 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, L. R. Pendril, G. W. Series, “Lifetimes, depopulating cross sections and hyperfine structures of some Rydberg S and D states of 133Cs,” J. Phys. B 10, L137–L141 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. E. Cooke, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, private communication (May1978).
  16. See, for example, J. Reif, H. Walther “Generation of tunable 16 μm radiation by stimulated hyper-Raman effect in strontium vapor,” Appl. Phys. 15, 361–364 (1978); J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, “Optically pumped stimulated emission and stimulated electronic Raman scattering from K atoms,” J. Phys. B 8, L37–L41 (1975); A. M. F. Lau, W. K. Bischel, C. K. Rhodes, R. M. Hill, “Optical frequency conversion processes in atomic Rydberg states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 245–247 (1976); T. W. Ducas, M. G. Littman, R. R. Freeman, D. Kleppner, “Stark ionization of high-lying states of sodium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 366–369 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1978 (2)

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, R. M. Hill, “Doubly exited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, J. Reif, H. Walther “Generation of tunable 16 μm radiation by stimulated hyper-Raman effect in strontium vapor,” Appl. Phys. 15, 361–364 (1978); J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, “Optically pumped stimulated emission and stimulated electronic Raman scattering from K atoms,” J. Phys. B 8, L37–L41 (1975); A. M. F. Lau, W. K. Bischel, C. K. Rhodes, R. M. Hill, “Optical frequency conversion processes in atomic Rydberg states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 245–247 (1976); T. W. Ducas, M. G. Littman, R. R. Freeman, D. Kleppner, “Stark ionization of high-lying states of sodium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 366–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1977 (5)

J. A. Schiavone, D. E. Donohue, D. R. Herrick, R. S. Freund, “Electron-impact excitation of helium: cross sections, n, and distributions of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 48–61 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Delpech, J. Boulmer, F. Devos, “Transitions between Rydberg levels of helium induced by electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1400–1403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, L. R. Pendril, G. W. Series, “Lifetimes, depopulating cross sections and hyperfine structures of some Rydberg S and D states of 133Cs,” J. Phys. B 10, L137–L141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. Gornik, “Lifetime measurements of highly excited levels of Sr i using stepwise excitation by two pulsed dye lasers,” Z. Phys. A 283, 231–234 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Esherick, “Bound, even parity J = 0 and J = 2 spectra of Sr,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920–1936 (1977); Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., personal communication (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. Fontijn, “Recent progress in chemi-ionization kinetics,” Pure Appl. Chem. 39, 287–306 (1974); AeroChem Research Laboratories, Princeton, N.J., personal communication (1977).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

I. C. Percival, “Cross sections for collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms and hydrogen-like ions,” Nucl. Fusion 6, 182–187 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

J. A. Hornbeck, J. P. Molnar, “Mass spectrometric studies of molecular ions in the noble gases,” Phys. Rev. 84, 621 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

F. L. Arnot, M. B. M’Ewen, “The formation of helium molecules,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 166, 543–551 (1938); “The formation of helium molecules II,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 171, 106–120 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1930 (1)

F. L. Mohler, C. Boeckner, “Photoionization of cesium by line absorption,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 5, 51–71 (1930).

Arnot, F. L.

F. L. Arnot, M. B. M’Ewen, “The formation of helium molecules,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 166, 543–551 (1938); “The formation of helium molecules II,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 171, 106–120 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Boeckner, C.

F. L. Mohler, C. Boeckner, “Photoionization of cesium by line absorption,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 5, 51–71 (1930).

Boulmer, J.

J.-F. Delpech, J. Boulmer, F. Devos, “Transitions between Rydberg levels of helium induced by electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1400–1403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, L. R.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, W. E.

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, R. M. Hill, “Doubly exited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Cooke, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, private communication (May1978).

Deech, J. S.

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, L. R. Pendril, G. W. Series, “Lifetimes, depopulating cross sections and hyperfine structures of some Rydberg S and D states of 133Cs,” J. Phys. B 10, L137–L141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Delpech, J.-F.

J.-F. Delpech, J. Boulmer, F. Devos, “Transitions between Rydberg levels of helium induced by electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1400–1403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Devos, F.

J.-F. Delpech, J. Boulmer, F. Devos, “Transitions between Rydberg levels of helium induced by electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1400–1403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Donohue, D. E.

J. A. Schiavone, D. E. Donohue, D. R. Herrick, R. S. Freund, “Electron-impact excitation of helium: cross sections, n, and distributions of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 48–61 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, S. A.

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, R. M. Hill, “Doubly exited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Esherick, P.

P. Esherick, “Bound, even parity J = 0 and J = 2 spectra of Sr,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920–1936 (1977); Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., personal communication (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fontijn, A.

A. Fontijn, “Recent progress in chemi-ionization kinetics,” Pure Appl. Chem. 39, 287–306 (1974); AeroChem Research Laboratories, Princeton, N.J., personal communication (1977).
[CrossRef]

Freund, R. S.

J. A. Schiavone, D. E. Donohue, D. R. Herrick, R. S. Freund, “Electron-impact excitation of helium: cross sections, n, and distributions of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 48–61 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, R. M. Hill, “Doubly exited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, W.

W. Gornik, “Lifetime measurements of highly excited levels of Sr i using stepwise excitation by two pulsed dye lasers,” Z. Phys. A 283, 231–234 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Herrick, D. R.

J. A. Schiavone, D. E. Donohue, D. R. Herrick, R. S. Freund, “Electron-impact excitation of helium: cross sections, n, and distributions of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 48–61 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. M.

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, R. M. Hill, “Doubly exited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hornbeck, J. A.

J. A. Hornbeck, J. P. Molnar, “Mass spectrometric studies of molecular ions in the noble gases,” Phys. Rev. 84, 621 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. A.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

B. Liu, R. E. Olson, “Potential energies and scattering cross sections for Ca+ + Ca,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Luypaert, R.

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, L. R. Pendril, G. W. Series, “Lifetimes, depopulating cross sections and hyperfine structures of some Rydberg S and D states of 133Cs,” J. Phys. B 10, L137–L141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M’Ewen, M. B.

F. L. Arnot, M. B. M’Ewen, “The formation of helium molecules,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 166, 543–551 (1938); “The formation of helium molecules II,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 171, 106–120 (1939).
[CrossRef]

May, C. A.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Mohler, F. L.

F. L. Mohler, C. Boeckner, “Photoionization of cesium by line absorption,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 5, 51–71 (1930).

Molnar, J. P.

J. A. Hornbeck, J. P. Molnar, “Mass spectrometric studies of molecular ions in the noble gases,” Phys. Rev. 84, 621 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Olson, R. E.

B. Liu, R. E. Olson, “Potential energies and scattering cross sections for Ca+ + Ca,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Paisner, J. A.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pendril, L. R.

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, L. R. Pendril, G. W. Series, “Lifetimes, depopulating cross sections and hyperfine structures of some Rydberg S and D states of 133Cs,” J. Phys. B 10, L137–L141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Percival, I. C.

I. C. Percival, “Cross sections for collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms and hydrogen-like ions,” Nucl. Fusion 6, 182–187 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Radziemski, L. J.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

See, for example, J. Reif, H. Walther “Generation of tunable 16 μm radiation by stimulated hyper-Raman effect in strontium vapor,” Appl. Phys. 15, 361–364 (1978); J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, “Optically pumped stimulated emission and stimulated electronic Raman scattering from K atoms,” J. Phys. B 8, L37–L41 (1975); A. M. F. Lau, W. K. Bischel, C. K. Rhodes, R. M. Hill, “Optical frequency conversion processes in atomic Rydberg states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 245–247 (1976); T. W. Ducas, M. G. Littman, R. R. Freeman, D. Kleppner, “Stark ionization of high-lying states of sodium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 366–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schiavone, J. A.

J. A. Schiavone, D. E. Donohue, D. R. Herrick, R. S. Freund, “Electron-impact excitation of helium: cross sections, n, and distributions of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 48–61 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Series, G. W.

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, L. R. Pendril, G. W. Series, “Lifetimes, depopulating cross sections and hyperfine structures of some Rydberg S and D states of 133Cs,” J. Phys. B 10, L137–L141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Solarz, R. W.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

See, for example, J. Reif, H. Walther “Generation of tunable 16 μm radiation by stimulated hyper-Raman effect in strontium vapor,” Appl. Phys. 15, 361–364 (1978); J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, “Optically pumped stimulated emission and stimulated electronic Raman scattering from K atoms,” J. Phys. B 8, L37–L41 (1975); A. M. F. Lau, W. K. Bischel, C. K. Rhodes, R. M. Hill, “Optical frequency conversion processes in atomic Rydberg states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 245–247 (1976); T. W. Ducas, M. G. Littman, R. R. Freeman, D. Kleppner, “Stark ionization of high-lying states of sodium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 366–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Worden, E. F.

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (1)

See, for example, J. Reif, H. Walther “Generation of tunable 16 μm radiation by stimulated hyper-Raman effect in strontium vapor,” Appl. Phys. 15, 361–364 (1978); J. J. Wynne, P. P. Sorokin, “Optically pumped stimulated emission and stimulated electronic Raman scattering from K atoms,” J. Phys. B 8, L37–L41 (1975); A. M. F. Lau, W. K. Bischel, C. K. Rhodes, R. M. Hill, “Optical frequency conversion processes in atomic Rydberg states,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 245–247 (1976); T. W. Ducas, M. G. Littman, R. R. Freeman, D. Kleppner, “Stark ionization of high-lying states of sodium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 366–369 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

J. S. Deech, R. Luypaert, L. R. Pendril, G. W. Series, “Lifetimes, depopulating cross sections and hyperfine structures of some Rydberg S and D states of 133Cs,” J. Phys. B 10, L137–L141 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) (1)

F. L. Mohler, C. Boeckner, “Photoionization of cesium by line absorption,” J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) 5, 51–71 (1930).

Nucl. Fusion (1)

I. C. Percival, “Cross sections for collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms and hydrogen-like ions,” Nucl. Fusion 6, 182–187 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Hornbeck, J. P. Molnar, “Mass spectrometric studies of molecular ions in the noble gases,” Phys. Rev. 84, 621 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

R. W. Solarz, C. A. May, L. R. Carlson, E. F. Worden, S. A. Johnson, J. A. Paisner, L. J. Radziemski, “Detection of Rydberg states in uranium using time resolved stepwise laser photoionization,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1129–1136 (1976); E. F. Worden, R. W. Solarz, J. A. Paisner, J. G. Conway, “First ionization potentials of lanthanides by laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 52–61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Esherick, “Bound, even parity J = 0 and J = 2 spectra of Sr,” Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920–1936 (1977); Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., personal communication (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schiavone, D. E. Donohue, D. R. Herrick, R. S. Freund, “Electron-impact excitation of helium: cross sections, n, and distributions of high Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 16, 48–61 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J.-F. Delpech, J. Boulmer, F. Devos, “Transitions between Rydberg levels of helium induced by electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1400–1403 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, R. M. Hill, “Doubly exited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. (London) A (1)

F. L. Arnot, M. B. M’Ewen, “The formation of helium molecules,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 166, 543–551 (1938); “The formation of helium molecules II,” Proc. R. Soc. (London) A 171, 106–120 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Chem. (1)

A. Fontijn, “Recent progress in chemi-ionization kinetics,” Pure Appl. Chem. 39, 287–306 (1974); AeroChem Research Laboratories, Princeton, N.J., personal communication (1977).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. A (1)

W. Gornik, “Lifetime measurements of highly excited levels of Sr i using stepwise excitation by two pulsed dye lasers,” Z. Phys. A 283, 231–234 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

We have also observed associative ionization for the 5snp1P1 series using the three-step excitation process:Sr(5s S210)→λ1Sr(5s5pP31)→λ2Sr(5s6sS31)→λ3Sr(5snpP1).The investigation was less extensive than for the ns and nd series.

B. Liu, R. E. Olson, “Potential energies and scattering cross sections for Ca+ + Ca,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

W. E. Cooke, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, private communication (May1978).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ion signals at mass 88 (Sr+, scans a,b) and at mass 176 (Sr2+, scans c,d) versus excitation energy at various Sr densities. All scans are for two-step excitation with laser 1 at 4607 Å and laser 2 scanned from 4244 to 4125 Å. Sr ion signals in scan a are produced by photoionization of the laser-populated levels by laser 2 radiation, while those in scan b are produced mainly by collisional (atom and electron) ionization of the Rydberg levels. The Sr2+ signals in c and d result from associative ionization reactions. The reversal effect (dip at line center) in d from n = 15 to 35 results from electron ionization of these Rydberg levels before associative ionization collisions occur (see text).

Equations (6)

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Sr ( 5 s n l ) + Sr ( 5 s 2 ) Sr 2 + + e - ,
Sr ( 5 s 2 1 S 0 ) 4607 Å λ 1 Sr ( 5 s 5 p P 1 1 ) scanned λ 2 Sr ( 5 s n l ) .
Sr ( 5 s n l ) λ 2 Sr + + e - ( ~ 2 eV ) .
Sr ( 5 s n l ) + Sr ( 5 s 2 ) Sr + + Sr + e - ,
Sr ( 5 s n l ) + Sr ( 5 s n l ) Sr + + e - + Sr ,
Sr(5sS210)λ1Sr(5s5pP31)λ2Sr(5s6sS31)λ3Sr(5snpP1).

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