Abstract

Simultaneous emission induced by one- and two-photon absorption from the charge-transfer band from aqueous solutions of europium perchlorate pumped by a repetitively pulsed nitrogen laser have been detected. These processes were verified both through the measured fluorescence intensity as a function of the laser flux and from a qualitative analysis of the two overlapping characteristic broad emission spectra, which are dependent on the excitation wavelength. A theoretical fit could be made to the laser-power-dependence data, which gave a two-photon absorption coefficient of approximately 4 × 10−49 cm4 sec/photon-molecule for this system.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Haas, G. Stein, M. Tomkiewicz, “Fluorescence and photochemistry of the charge-transfer band in aqueous europium (iii) solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. 74, 2558–2562 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Donohue, “Photochemical separation of europium from lanthanide mixtures in aqueous solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 5403–5404 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Kleinman, “Laser and two-photon processes,” Phys. Rev. 125, 87–88 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Bret, H. P. Weber, “Forward emission of Raman radiation in various liquids,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 180.

1977 (1)

T. Donohue, “Photochemical separation of europium from lanthanide mixtures in aqueous solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 5403–5404 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Y. Haas, G. Stein, M. Tomkiewicz, “Fluorescence and photochemistry of the charge-transfer band in aqueous europium (iii) solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. 74, 2558–2562 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

D. Kleinman, “Laser and two-photon processes,” Phys. Rev. 125, 87–88 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bret, G.

G. Bret, H. P. Weber, “Forward emission of Raman radiation in various liquids,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 180.

Donohue, T.

T. Donohue, “Photochemical separation of europium from lanthanide mixtures in aqueous solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 5403–5404 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Haas, Y.

Y. Haas, G. Stein, M. Tomkiewicz, “Fluorescence and photochemistry of the charge-transfer band in aqueous europium (iii) solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. 74, 2558–2562 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kleinman, D.

D. Kleinman, “Laser and two-photon processes,” Phys. Rev. 125, 87–88 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Stein, G.

Y. Haas, G. Stein, M. Tomkiewicz, “Fluorescence and photochemistry of the charge-transfer band in aqueous europium (iii) solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. 74, 2558–2562 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tomkiewicz, M.

Y. Haas, G. Stein, M. Tomkiewicz, “Fluorescence and photochemistry of the charge-transfer band in aqueous europium (iii) solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. 74, 2558–2562 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

G. Bret, H. P. Weber, “Forward emission of Raman radiation in various liquids,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 180.

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Donohue, “Photochemical separation of europium from lanthanide mixtures in aqueous solution,” J. Chem. Phys. 67, 5403–5404 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

Y. Haas, G. Stein, M. Tomkiewicz, “Fluorescence and photochemistry of the charge-transfer band in aqueous europium (iii) solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. 74, 2558–2562 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. Kleinman, “Laser and two-photon processes,” Phys. Rev. 125, 87–88 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Bret, H. P. Weber, “Forward emission of Raman radiation in various liquids,” in Physics of Quantum Electronics, P. L. Kelley, B. Lax, P. E. Tannenwald, eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), p. 180.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical setup using a repetitively pulsed nitrogen laser as the excitation source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Superposition of spectrometer traces for the absorbances of 0.10 M and 1.0 M aqueous solutions of europium perchlorate between 250 to 400 nm. The 0.10 M traces are taken at 10 times the sensitivity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescent intensity from the charge-transfer band versus laser flux measured at two wavelengths for (a) 1.0 M and (b) 0.10 M solutions. Notice that the data points depart from a linear dependence above a laser flux of 1023 photons cm−2 sec−1 in both cases. The solid line represents a theoretical fit to the data based on the simultaneous absorption of one and two photons from the laser. Curve (c) gives a comparison of the measured Raman scattered intensity from the solvent (water) alone over the same laser-intensity regime. The intensity units are not to scale, however, in this figure. Note that the slope is linear up to the maximum laser flux.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative fluorescence is plotted as a function of the relative laser intensity over two decades. Note the square-law dependence. This curve gives convincing evidence for the two-photon process, which is barely detectable in the overlapping region of the two emission bands shown in Fig. 3, curves (a) and (b).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I F = C N Φ ( σ ( 1 ) + δ ( 2 ) I L ) I L ,
δ ( 2 ) ( e 2 2 m c ) 2 c 2 n 2 ν L 2 1 Δ ν ,
δ ( 2 ) = σ ( 2 ) N I L 2 × 10 - 49 cm 4 sec / photon - molecule .

Metrics