Abstract

We have generated 50 mJ of 16.9-μm radiation by stimulated rotational Raman scattering in 3 atm of H2 gas pumped by a CO2 TEA-laser source. Threshold was reached by injection of a few microjoules of 16.9-μm radiation generated by four-wave mixing. We achieved 25% peak power, or 40% peak photon conversion efficiency.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. L. Byer, “A 16 μm source for laser isotope enrichment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 732–733 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. D. Cantrell, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M. 87545 (personal communication); S. R. J. Brueck, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass. 02173 (personal communication).
  3. R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Lukasik, J. Ducuing, “Tunable millijoule radiation extending to the 16 μm region,” Opt. Commun. 22, 355–357 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, “Light scattering by coherently driven lattice vibrations,” Phys. Rev. 144, 676–688 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. L. Byer, “Parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 70–80.
  6. J. Ducuing, R. Frey, F. Pradera, “Tunable infrared generation in molecular gases,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 81–87.
  7. S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Tunable infrared generation by coherent raman mixing in H2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. P. Sorokin, M. M. T. Loy, J. R. Lankard, “A 16 μm radiation source utilizing four wave mixing in cooled para-hydrogen gas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 871–875 (1977); M. M. T. Loy, P. P. Sorokin, J. R. Lankard, “Generation of 16 μm radiation by four wave mixing in para-hydrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 415–417 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 16, Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
    [Crossref]
  10. G. V. Venkin, G. M. Krochik, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Yu.G. Khronopulo, “Effect of four wave parametric processes on the dynamics of the stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 873–879 (1977).
  11. W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. 1241646–1654 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in H2 and H2–He mixtures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 51–62 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. L. Carman, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloem-bergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60–72 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. A. Akhmanov, Yu. E. D’yakov, L. I. Pavlov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 520–536 (1974).

1978 (1)

G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in H2 and H2–He mixtures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 51–62 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (4)

R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Lukasik, J. Ducuing, “Tunable millijoule radiation extending to the 16 μm region,” Opt. Commun. 22, 355–357 (1977).
[Crossref]

S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Tunable infrared generation by coherent raman mixing in H2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
[Crossref]

P. P. Sorokin, M. M. T. Loy, J. R. Lankard, “A 16 μm radiation source utilizing four wave mixing in cooled para-hydrogen gas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 871–875 (1977); M. M. T. Loy, P. P. Sorokin, J. R. Lankard, “Generation of 16 μm radiation by four wave mixing in para-hydrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 415–417 (1977).
[Crossref]

G. V. Venkin, G. M. Krochik, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Yu.G. Khronopulo, “Effect of four wave parametric processes on the dynamics of the stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 873–879 (1977).

1976 (1)

R. L. Byer, “A 16 μm source for laser isotope enrichment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 732–733 (1976).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

S. A. Akhmanov, Yu. E. D’yakov, L. I. Pavlov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 520–536 (1974).

1970 (1)

R. L. Carman, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloem-bergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60–72 (1970).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, “Light scattering by coherently driven lattice vibrations,” Phys. Rev. 144, 676–688 (1966).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. 1241646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, Yu. E. D’yakov, L. I. Pavlov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 520–536 (1974).

Birnbaum, G.

G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in H2 and H2–He mixtures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 51–62 (1978).
[Crossref]

Bloem-bergen, N.

R. L. Carman, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloem-bergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60–72 (1970).
[Crossref]

Brosnan, S. J.

S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Tunable infrared generation by coherent raman mixing in H2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Tunable infrared generation by coherent raman mixing in H2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
[Crossref]

R. L. Byer, “A 16 μm source for laser isotope enrichment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 732–733 (1976).
[Crossref]

R. L. Byer, “Parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 70–80.

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 16, Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
[Crossref]

Cantrell, C. D.

C. D. Cantrell, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M. 87545 (personal communication); S. R. J. Brueck, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass. 02173 (personal communication).

Carman, R. L.

R. L. Carman, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloem-bergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60–72 (1970).
[Crossref]

D’yakov, Yu. E.

S. A. Akhmanov, Yu. E. D’yakov, L. I. Pavlov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 520–536 (1974).

Ducuing, J.

R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Lukasik, J. Ducuing, “Tunable millijoule radiation extending to the 16 μm region,” Opt. Commun. 22, 355–357 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Ducuing, R. Frey, F. Pradera, “Tunable infrared generation in molecular gases,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 81–87.

Fleming, R. N.

S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Tunable infrared generation by coherent raman mixing in H2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
[Crossref]

Frey, R.

R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Lukasik, J. Ducuing, “Tunable millijoule radiation extending to the 16 μm region,” Opt. Commun. 22, 355–357 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. Ducuing, R. Frey, F. Pradera, “Tunable infrared generation in molecular gases,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 81–87.

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, “Light scattering by coherently driven lattice vibrations,” Phys. Rev. 144, 676–688 (1966).
[Crossref]

Herbst, R. L.

S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Tunable infrared generation by coherent raman mixing in H2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
[Crossref]

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 16, Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, W.

J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, “Light scattering by coherently driven lattice vibrations,” Phys. Rev. 144, 676–688 (1966).
[Crossref]

Khronopulo, Yu.G.

G. V. Venkin, G. M. Krochik, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Yu.G. Khronopulo, “Effect of four wave parametric processes on the dynamics of the stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 873–879 (1977).

Krochik, G. M.

G. V. Venkin, G. M. Krochik, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Yu.G. Khronopulo, “Effect of four wave parametric processes on the dynamics of the stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 873–879 (1977).

Kulyuk, L. L.

G. V. Venkin, G. M. Krochik, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Yu.G. Khronopulo, “Effect of four wave parametric processes on the dynamics of the stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 873–879 (1977).

Lankard, J. R.

P. P. Sorokin, M. M. T. Loy, J. R. Lankard, “A 16 μm radiation source utilizing four wave mixing in cooled para-hydrogen gas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 871–875 (1977); M. M. T. Loy, P. P. Sorokin, J. R. Lankard, “Generation of 16 μm radiation by four wave mixing in para-hydrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 415–417 (1977).
[Crossref]

Louisell, W. H.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. 1241646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

Loy, M. M. T.

P. P. Sorokin, M. M. T. Loy, J. R. Lankard, “A 16 μm radiation source utilizing four wave mixing in cooled para-hydrogen gas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 871–875 (1977); M. M. T. Loy, P. P. Sorokin, J. R. Lankard, “Generation of 16 μm radiation by four wave mixing in para-hydrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 415–417 (1977).
[Crossref]

Lukasik, J.

R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Lukasik, J. Ducuing, “Tunable millijoule radiation extending to the 16 μm region,” Opt. Commun. 22, 355–357 (1977).
[Crossref]

Maleev, D. I.

G. V. Venkin, G. M. Krochik, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Yu.G. Khronopulo, “Effect of four wave parametric processes on the dynamics of the stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 873–879 (1977).

Pavlov, L. I.

S. A. Akhmanov, Yu. E. D’yakov, L. I. Pavlov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 520–536 (1974).

Pradera, F.

J. Ducuing, R. Frey, F. Pradera, “Tunable infrared generation in molecular gases,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 81–87.

Pradere, F.

R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Lukasik, J. Ducuing, “Tunable millijoule radiation extending to the 16 μm region,” Opt. Commun. 22, 355–357 (1977).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, F.

R. L. Carman, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloem-bergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60–72 (1970).
[Crossref]

Siegman, A. E.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. 1241646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

Sorokin, P. P.

P. P. Sorokin, M. M. T. Loy, J. R. Lankard, “A 16 μm radiation source utilizing four wave mixing in cooled para-hydrogen gas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 871–875 (1977); M. M. T. Loy, P. P. Sorokin, J. R. Lankard, “Generation of 16 μm radiation by four wave mixing in para-hydrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 415–417 (1977).
[Crossref]

Venkin, G. V.

G. V. Venkin, G. M. Krochik, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Yu.G. Khronopulo, “Effect of four wave parametric processes on the dynamics of the stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 873–879 (1977).

Wang, C. S.

R. L. Carman, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloem-bergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60–72 (1970).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. 1241646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. J. Brosnan, R. N. Fleming, R. L. Herbst, R. L. Byer, “Tunable infrared generation by coherent raman mixing in H2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 330–332 (1977).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. P. Sorokin, M. M. T. Loy, J. R. Lankard, “A 16 μm radiation source utilizing four wave mixing in cooled para-hydrogen gas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 871–875 (1977); M. M. T. Loy, P. P. Sorokin, J. R. Lankard, “Generation of 16 μm radiation by four wave mixing in para-hydrogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 415–417 (1977).
[Crossref]

R. L. Byer, “A 16 μm source for laser isotope enrichment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 732–733 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

G. Birnbaum, “Far infrared absorption in H2 and H2–He mixtures,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 19, 51–62 (1978).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Lukasik, J. Ducuing, “Tunable millijoule radiation extending to the 16 μm region,” Opt. Commun. 22, 355–357 (1977).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (2)

J. A. Giordmaine, W. Kaiser, “Light scattering by coherently driven lattice vibrations,” Phys. Rev. 144, 676–688 (1966).
[Crossref]

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, A. E. Siegman, Phys. Rev. 1241646–1654 (1961).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. L. Carman, F. Shimizu, C. S. Wang, N. Bloem-bergen, Phys. Rev. A 2, 60–72 (1970).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

G. V. Venkin, G. M. Krochik, L. L. Kulyuk, D. I. Maleev, Yu.G. Khronopulo, “Effect of four wave parametric processes on the dynamics of the stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering,” Sov. Phys. JETP 43, 873–879 (1977).

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

S. A. Akhmanov, Yu. E. D’yakov, L. I. Pavlov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 520–536 (1974).

Other (4)

R. L. Byer, “Parametric oscillators,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 70–80.

J. Ducuing, R. Frey, F. Pradera, “Tunable infrared generation in molecular gases,” in Tunable Lasers and Applications, A. Mooradian, T. Jaeger, P. Stokseth, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), pp. 81–87.

C. D. Cantrell, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Los Alamos, N.M. 87545 (personal communication); S. R. J. Brueck, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass. 02173 (personal communication).

R. L. Byer, R. L. Herbst, “Parametric oscillation and mixing,” in Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 16, Nonlinear Infrared Generation, Y. R. Shen, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of rotational Raman threshold at 1.06 μm and pressure-induced absorption at 10.6 μm on p-H2 pressure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output energy at 16.95 μm versus CO2-laser peak input power.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E p z = - ω p 2 c n p χ R ( E s 2 E p + E i E 0 * E s e i Δ k z ) ,
E s z = + ω s 2 c n s χ R ( E p 2 E s + E i * E o E p e - i Δ k z ) ,
E i z = - ω i 2 c n i χ R ( E o 2 E i + E p E s * E o e - i Δ k z ) ,
E o z = + ω o 2 c n o χ R ( E i 2 E o + E p * E s E i e i Δ k z ) ,
g s = ω s χ R E p 2 n s c = 4 π χ R I p λ s n s n p o c .
I o I i = ( ω o ω s ) supl 2 n i n p n o n s I s I p ,

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