Abstract

We used a tunable cw dye laser to observe Doppler-free two-photon transitions to alkali-atom Rydberg levels. Real-time signals were obtained in an ionization cell of appropriate construction. The two-photon transition wavelengths to rubidium s levels were measured up to n = 50 with better than 1 × 10−7 absolute accuracy and can be represented to within the experimental precision by a simple function of the principal quantum number. Other related transitions and future possibilities are considered.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. A summary of current techniques may be found in Laser Spectroscopy III, Vol. 7, J. L. Hall, J. L. Carlsten, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 410–426.
  2. J. D. Simmons, J. T. Hougen, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. A 81A, 25 (1977).
  3. S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, A. Perrin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 56 (1977); and personal communication.
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
  5. K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 537 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. L. Hall, J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, in preparation.
  7. J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. See, for example, M. J. Seaton, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 88, 815 (1966), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  9. Deletion of the P4/n*4 term increased the sum square error only about twofold, although slightly different values of the parameters Pi were produced. When Rydberg P and D levels are measured to corresponding accuracy, definitive values of ionization potential, quantum defects, and isotope shift may be deduced.
  10. P. R. Bolton, K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1418 (1977).
  11. C. Fabre, S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 15, 254 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Ferguson, M. H. Dunn, Opt. Commun. 23, 227 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Ye. V. Balkanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetskii, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976); M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977); J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, to be published.
  15. P. Esherick, J. J. Wynne, J. A. Armstrong, Opt. Lett. 1, 19 (1977); Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920 (1977), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

J. D. Simmons, J. T. Hougen, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. A 81A, 25 (1977).

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, A. Perrin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 56 (1977); and personal communication.
[CrossRef]

K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 537 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Bolton, K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1418 (1977).

A. J. Ferguson, M. H. Dunn, Opt. Commun. 23, 227 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Esherick, J. J. Wynne, J. A. Armstrong, Opt. Lett. 1, 19 (1977); Phys. Rev. A 15, 1920 (1977), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

Ye. V. Balkanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetskii, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976); M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977); J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).

1975

C. Fabre, S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 15, 254 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1966

See, for example, M. J. Seaton, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 88, 815 (1966), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, J. A.

Balkanov, Ye. V.

Ye. V. Balkanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetskii, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976); M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977); J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

J. L. Hall, J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, in preparation.

Bolton, P. R.

P. R. Bolton, K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1418 (1977).

Chartier, J. M.

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).

Chebotayev, V. P.

Ye. V. Balkanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetskii, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976); M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977); J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dubetskii, B. Ya.

Ye. V. Balkanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetskii, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976); M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977); J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, M. H.

A. J. Ferguson, M. H. Dunn, Opt. Commun. 23, 227 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Esherick, P.

Fabre, C.

C. Fabre, S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 15, 254 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. J.

A. J. Ferguson, M. H. Dunn, Opt. Commun. 23, 227 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, A. Perrin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 56 (1977); and personal communication.
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, to be published.

J. L. Hall, J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, in preparation.

Haroche, S.

C. Fabre, S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 15, 254 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, K. C.

P. R. Bolton, K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1418 (1977).

K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 537 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Helmcke, J.

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).

J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, to be published.

Hougen, J. T.

J. D. Simmons, J. T. Hougen, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. A 81A, 25 (1977).

Lee, S. A.

J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, to be published.

J. L. Hall, J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, in preparation.

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, A. Perrin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 56 (1977); and personal communication.
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, A. Perrin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 56 (1977); and personal communication.
[CrossRef]

Seaton, M. J.

See, for example, M. J. Seaton, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 88, 815 (1966), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. D.

J. D. Simmons, J. T. Hougen, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. A 81A, 25 (1977).

Stoicheff, B. P.

P. R. Bolton, K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1418 (1977).

K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 537 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wallard, A. J.

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).

Wynne, J. J.

Appl. Phys.

Ye. V. Balkanov, V. P. Chebotayev, B. Ya. Dubetskii, Appl. Phys. 11, 201 (1976); M. M. Salour, C. Cohen-Tannoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 757 (1977); J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 159 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. L. Hall, S. A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, A. Perrin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 64, 56 (1977); and personal communication.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

P. R. Bolton, K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1418 (1977).

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. A

J. D. Simmons, J. T. Hougen, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. A 81A, 25 (1977).

Opt. Commun.

C. Fabre, S. Haroche, Opt. Commun. 15, 254 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Ferguson, M. H. Dunn, Opt. Commun. 23, 227 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. C. Harvey, B. P. Stoicheff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 537 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (London)

See, for example, M. J. Seaton, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 88, 815 (1966), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other

Deletion of the P4/n*4 term increased the sum square error only about twofold, although slightly different values of the parameters Pi were produced. When Rydberg P and D levels are measured to corresponding accuracy, definitive values of ionization potential, quantum defects, and isotope shift may be deduced.

J. L. Hall, J. C. Bergquist, S. A. Lee, in preparation.

A summary of current techniques may be found in Laser Spectroscopy III, Vol. 7, J. L. Hall, J. L. Carlsten, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), pp. 410–426.

J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, to be published.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two-photon transitions 32 S1/2 ← 5 S1/2 in natural Rb. Hyperfine peaks a and b arise from the dominant 85Rb isotopic component. The total laser frequency scan is about 4 GHz. The total sweep time was 4 sec. The isotope shift δ is about 174 MHz (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy difference between measured and calculated Rydberg levels. The numbers 1,2,3,4 designate peaks a′,a,b,b′, respectively, as shown in Fig. 1. Hyperfine splittings have been removed to reference center-of-gravity level positions. The two Rb isotopes were treated separately. The standard deviations of the fits are about 0.25 milliwavenumber at the laser frequency, essentially equal to the scatter in the wavelength measurement (≃ 3 × 10−8). (See text and Table 1.)

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Representation of n2S Energy Levels of Rba

Equations (2)

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T n = P 1 - R M / ( n - μ n ) 2 ,
μ n = P 2 + P 3 / n 0 * 2 + P 4 / n 0 * 4 ,

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