Abstract

We present the first reported observation in the infrared of nonlinear phase-conjugated reflection. This was achieved via degenerate four-wave mixing in polycrystalline germanium. The observation was facilitated by taking advantage of the counterpropagating (strong) waves internal to a pulsed CO2 laser cavity. The measured effective reflectivity was 2% with a 10-mm interaction length. This simple intracavity technique is generally applicable to any nonlinear material transparent at the wavelength of the laser into which it is inserted.

© 1978 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. I. Bespalov, V. I. Talanov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 3, 471 (1966) [JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966); R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. L. Carman, R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1281 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Hellwarth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Yariv, D. M. Pepper, Opt. Lett. 1, 16 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Marburger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 372 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. L. Abrams, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 2, 94 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Ya Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 15, 160 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 109 (1972)]; O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 16, 617 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972)].
  8. D. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1977); S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, Opt. Lett. 2, 58 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Wang, C. R. Giuliano, Opt. Lett. 2, 4 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. F. Pilipetskii, V. V. Ragoul’skii, V. V. Shkounov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, presented at 1977 Vavilov Conference, Novosibirsk, U.S.S.R. (1977) (unpublished).
  11. D. Korff, S. L. Glickler, J. D. Daugherty, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 23, 156 (1978).
  12. A. Goldhalekar, N. R. Heckenberg, E. Holzhauer, Phys. Lett. A46, 229 (1973).
  13. J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. 178, 1295 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. The mirror was optimally aligned by maximizing its influence on the low-power lasing with just the low-pressure tube operated.

1978

J. Marburger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 372 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. Korff, S. L. Glickler, J. D. Daugherty, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 23, 156 (1978).

V. Wang, C. R. Giuliano, Opt. Lett. 2, 4 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Abrams, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 2, 94 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

R. W. Hellwarth, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1977); S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, Opt. Lett. 2, 58 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv, D. M. Pepper, Opt. Lett. 1, 16 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

A. Goldhalekar, N. R. Heckenberg, E. Holzhauer, Phys. Lett. A46, 229 (1973).

1972

B. Ya Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 15, 160 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 109 (1972)]; O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 16, 617 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972)].

1969

J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. 178, 1295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966

V. I. Bespalov, V. I. Talanov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 3, 471 (1966) [JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966); R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Carman, R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1281 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, R. L.

Bespalov, V. I.

V. I. Bespalov, V. I. Talanov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 3, 471 (1966) [JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966); R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

D. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1977); S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, Opt. Lett. 2, 58 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, D.

D. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1977); S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, Opt. Lett. 2, 58 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carman, R. L.

R. L. Carman, R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1281 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

R. L. Carman, R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1281 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Daugherty, J. D.

D. Korff, S. L. Glickler, J. D. Daugherty, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 23, 156 (1978).

Faizullov, F. S.

B. Ya Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 15, 160 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 109 (1972)]; O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 16, 617 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972)].

Giuliano, C. R.

Glickler, S. L.

D. Korff, S. L. Glickler, J. D. Daugherty, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 23, 156 (1978).

Goldhalekar, A.

A. Goldhalekar, N. R. Heckenberg, E. Holzhauer, Phys. Lett. A46, 229 (1973).

Heckenberg, N. R.

A. Goldhalekar, N. R. Heckenberg, E. Holzhauer, Phys. Lett. A46, 229 (1973).

Hellwarth, R. W.

Holzhauer, E.

A. Goldhalekar, N. R. Heckenberg, E. Holzhauer, Phys. Lett. A46, 229 (1973).

Kelley, P. L.

R. L. Carman, R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1281 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Korff, D.

D. Korff, S. L. Glickler, J. D. Daugherty, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 23, 156 (1978).

Lind, R. C.

Marburger, J.

J. Marburger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 372 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, D. M.

Pilipetskii, N. F.

N. F. Pilipetskii, V. V. Ragoul’skii, V. V. Shkounov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, presented at 1977 Vavilov Conference, Novosibirsk, U.S.S.R. (1977) (unpublished).

Popovichev, V. I.

B. Ya Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 15, 160 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 109 (1972)]; O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 16, 617 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972)].

Ragoul’skii, V. V.

N. F. Pilipetskii, V. V. Ragoul’skii, V. V. Shkounov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, presented at 1977 Vavilov Conference, Novosibirsk, U.S.S.R. (1977) (unpublished).

Ragul’skii, V. V.

B. Ya Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 15, 160 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 109 (1972)]; O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 16, 617 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972)].

Shkounov, V. V.

N. F. Pilipetskii, V. V. Ragoul’skii, V. V. Shkounov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, presented at 1977 Vavilov Conference, Novosibirsk, U.S.S.R. (1977) (unpublished).

Talanov, V. I.

V. I. Bespalov, V. I. Talanov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 3, 471 (1966) [JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966); R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wang, V.

Wynne, J. J.

J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. 178, 1295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ya Zel’dovich, B.

B. Ya Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 15, 160 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 109 (1972)]; O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 16, 617 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972)].

Yariv, A.

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

N. F. Pilipetskii, V. V. Ragoul’skii, V. V. Shkounov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, presented at 1977 Vavilov Conference, Novosibirsk, U.S.S.R. (1977) (unpublished).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Marburger, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 372 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. Bloom, G. C. Bjorklund, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 592 (1977); P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1977); S. M. Jensen, R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 166 (1978); D. M. Bloom, P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, Opt. Lett. 2, 58 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 3, 4 (1978); P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.

D. Korff, S. L. Glickler, J. D. Daugherty, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 23, 156 (1978).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Lett.

A. Goldhalekar, N. R. Heckenberg, E. Holzhauer, Phys. Lett. A46, 229 (1973).

Phys. Rev.

J. J. Wynne, Phys. Rev. 178, 1295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. L. Carman, R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1281 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red.

V. I. Bespalov, V. I. Talanov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 3, 471 (1966) [JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966); R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelley, E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
[CrossRef]

B. Ya Zel’dovich, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 15, 160 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 109 (1972)]; O. Yu. Nosach, V. I. Popovichev, V. V. Ragul’skii, F. S. Faizullov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. Pis’ma Red. 16, 617 (1972) [Sov. Phys. JETP 16, 435 (1972)].

Other

N. F. Pilipetskii, V. V. Ragoul’skii, V. V. Shkounov, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, presented at 1977 Vavilov Conference, Novosibirsk, U.S.S.R. (1977) (unpublished).

The mirror was optimally aligned by maximizing its influence on the low-power lasing with just the low-pressure tube operated.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement. A low-pressure–high-pressure hybrid CO2 laser is employed in a conventional cavity configuration with the exception that the germanium output coupler is turned around so that the germanium is within the optical cavity. The output from the laser is redirected back through the inner surface of the germanium overlapping the active region in the sample. The internal angle of overlap is ~10°. It is within this region of overlap in the germanium that phase-conjugate reflection occurs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical photographs of video signals taken as described in the text. (a) and (b) are the phase-conjugate signals with and without the aberrator in place, respectively. In both cases there is a 10-fold attenuator in front of the vidicon. (c) and (d) are the reference-mirror reflected signals with and without the aberrator in place, respectively. There is no attenuation in picture (c), whereas a 100-fold attenuator was used in obtaining picture (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time history of the laser pulse and phase-conjugate pulse. In both oscillograms the vertical and horizontal deflections are the same. (a) Mirror-reflected reference laser pulse with a 100-fold attenuator in front of the high-speed detector. (b) Phase-conjugated pulse with no attenuation in front of the detector. Comparison of (a) and (b) gives the 2% reflection efficiency. Note that the phase-conjugate pulse is shorter by approximately 1 / 3, in accordance with the effect having a cubic dependence on intensity.

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