Abstract

Micro-optical structures for VUV laser beam shaping and wave-front sensing were manufactured by thin-film deposition onto CaF2 and transfer by etching. Arrays of Bessel-like F2 laser beams at a wavelength of 157 nm with extremely small conical angles were generated by microaxicon lenses. Beam propagation was studied in simulations and experiments. Apodization by absorbing layers is proposed for beam cleaning.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Zhang, P. R. Herman, Ch. Lauer, K. P. Chen, and M. Wei, Proc. SPIE 4274, 125 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Schäfer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.
  5. J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Grunwald, H. Mischke, and W. Rehak, Appl. Opt. 38, 4117 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, U. Griebner, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3701 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, F. Tschirschwitz, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lett. 25, 981 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, E. T. J. Nibbering, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2923 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, in Fringe 2001, W. Osten and W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), p. 33.
  13. B. W. Smith, A. Y. Bourov, and Y. Liu, presented at the International SEMATECH 157 nm Technical Data Review Meeting, Orlando, Fla., December 11–13, 2001; http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/157nm/TDR1201/output.htm .

2003 (1)

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Zhang, P. R. Herman, Ch. Lauer, K. P. Chen, and M. Wei, Proc. SPIE 4274, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Schäfer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, E. T. J. Nibbering, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, U. Griebner, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3701 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Behringer, R. E.

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Zs.

M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bourov, A. Y.

B. W. Smith, A. Y. Bourov, and Y. Liu, presented at the International SEMATECH 157 nm Technical Data Review Meeting, Orlando, Fla., December 11–13, 2001; http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/157nm/TDR1201/output.htm .

Cavallaro, J. R.

M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Ch.

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

Chen, K. P.

J. Zhang, P. R. Herman, Ch. Lauer, K. P. Chen, and M. Wei, Proc. SPIE 4274, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Craighead, H. G.

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehlert, R.

R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, U. Griebner, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3701 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

Epworth, R. W.

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Erdélyi, M.

M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, M.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, E. T. J. Nibbering, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, F. Tschirschwitz, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lett. 25, 981 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, U. Griebner, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3701 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, in Fringe 2001, W. Osten and W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), p. 33.

Grunwald, R.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, E. T. J. Nibbering, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, F. Tschirschwitz, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lett. 25, 981 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, H. Mischke, and W. Rehak, Appl. Opt. 38, 4117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, U. Griebner, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3701 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, in Fringe 2001, W. Osten and W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), p. 33.

Hartmann, H.-J.

Henderson, D.

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

J. Zhang, P. R. Herman, Ch. Lauer, K. P. Chen, and M. Wei, Proc. SPIE 4274, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Schäfer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horváth, Z. L.

M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Howard, R. E.

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ihlemann, J.

D. Schäfer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, L. D.

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jüptner, W.

Kanai, T.

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

Kanda, T.

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

Kebbel, V.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, E. T. J. Nibbering, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, F. Tschirschwitz, E. T. J. Nibbering, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, Opt. Lett. 25, 981 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, in Fringe 2001, W. Osten and W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), p. 33.

Kummrow, A.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, E. T. J. Nibbering, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lauer, Ch.

J. Zhang, P. R. Herman, Ch. Lauer, K. P. Chen, and M. Wei, Proc. SPIE 4274, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

B. W. Smith, A. Y. Bourov, and Y. Liu, presented at the International SEMATECH 157 nm Technical Data Review Meeting, Orlando, Fla., December 11–13, 2001; http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/157nm/TDR1201/output.htm .

Marowsky, G.

D. Schäfer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mischke, H.

Neumann, U.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Piché, M.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rehak, W.

Reinecke, W.

R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, U. Griebner, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3701 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rini, M.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, E. T. J. Nibbering, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2923 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, G.

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, D.

D. Schäfer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sekikawa, T.

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

Smayling, M. C.

M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

B. W. Smith, A. Y. Bourov, and Y. Liu, presented at the International SEMATECH 157 nm Technical Data Review Meeting, Orlando, Fla., December 11–13, 2001; http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/157nm/TDR1201/output.htm .

Sweeney, J. E.

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Szabó, G.

M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Togashi, T.

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

Tschirschwitz, F.

Wang, J.

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

Watanabe, S.

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

Wei, M.

J. Zhang, P. R. Herman, Ch. Lauer, K. P. Chen, and M. Wei, Proc. SPIE 4274, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

White, J. C.

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, S.

R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, U. Griebner, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3701 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

Zhang, Ch.

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, P. R. Herman, Ch. Lauer, K. P. Chen, and M. Wei, Proc. SPIE 4274, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

D. Schäfer, J. Ihlemann, G. Marowsky, and P. R. Herman, Appl. Phys. A 72, 377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. C. White, H. G. Craighead, R. E. Howard, L. D. Jackel, R. E. Behringer, R. W. Epworth, D. Henderson, and J. E. Sweeney, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 22 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Erdélyi, Z. L. Horváth, G. Szabó, Zs. Bor, F. K. Tittel, J. R. Cavallaro, and M. C. Smayling, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 287 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Grunwald, S. Woggon, U. Griebner, R. Ehlert, and W. Reinecke, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 3701 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Grunwald, V. Kebbel, U. Griebner, U. Neumann, A. Kummrow, M. Rini, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. Piché, G. Rousseau, and M. Fortin, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Zhang, P. R. Herman, Ch. Lauer, K. P. Chen, and M. Wei, Proc. SPIE 4274, 125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. Kanai, T. Kanda, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, S. Watanabe, Ch. Chen, Ch. Zhang, Z. Xu, and J. Wang, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (QELS), on CD ROM, Vols. 89 and 90 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), paper CTuM1.

R. Grunwald, U. Griebner, T. Elsaesser, V. Kebbel, H.-J. Hartmann, and W. Jüptner, in Fringe 2001, W. Osten and W. Jüptner, eds. (Elsevier, Paris, 2001), p. 33.

B. W. Smith, A. Y. Bourov, and Y. Liu, presented at the International SEMATECH 157 nm Technical Data Review Meeting, Orlando, Fla., December 11–13, 2001; http://www.sematech.org/public/resources/litho/157nm/TDR1201/output.htm .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Evolution of the measured thickness distribution of thin-film microaxicons during structure transfer from a silica layer onto a CaF2 substrate by RIE: (a) reduction of maximum thickness, (b) normalized profiles along the transversal direction as a function of etching time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated beam shaping with plane-wave illumination at 157 nm for single Gaussian-shaped CaF2 microaxicons with maximum thicknesses of (a) 0.1 µm, (b) 0.2 µm, (c) 0.4 µm, and (d) 0.6 µm; insets, transversal intensity distribution at z=5 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Apodization by absorption: numerical simulation of beam propagation for a 2µm-thick silica layer single lens upon CaF2: (a) without absorption and (b) slightly absorbing (assumed extinction coefficient, k=0.052); insets, corresponding transversal cuts at z=5 cm. Logarithmic intensity scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nondiffracting VUV beam array generation experiment: cuts through the intensity distributions detected by a quantum converter plate at distances of 6–30 mm from a hexagonal axicon array for five selected subbeams (array, fused silica upon CaF2; Gaussian-shaped axicons; maximum layer thickness, 2 µm; period, 405 µm; cut direction, 60° to the fast axis of divergence).

Equations (1)

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hx=R2/R1hx=Shx.

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