Abstract

We describe a near-IR scanning laser ophthalmoscope that allows the retinal cone mosaic to be imaged in the human eye in vivo without the use of wave-front correction techniques. The method takes advantage of the highly directional quality of cone photoreceptors that permits efficient coupling of light to individual cones and subsequent detection of most directional components of the backscattered light produced by the light-guiding effect of the cones. We discuss details of the system and describe cone-mosaic images obtained under different conditions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2003 (1)

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Proc. SPIE 4964, 24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

G. J. van Blokland, Vision Res. 26, 495 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. I. Yellot, Vision Res. 22, 1205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1963 (1)

1952 (1)

1933 (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F.

Donnelly, W. J.

Elsner, A.

Enoch, J. M.

Fitzke, F. W.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light 8, 129 (1998).

He, J. C.

Hebert, T. J.

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, G. W.

Iglesias, I.

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Proc. SPIE 4964, 24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Iglesias and P. Artal, Opt. Lett. 25, 1804 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

Marcos, S.

Miller, D. T.

Navarro, R.

Pomerantzeff, O.

Prieto, P. M.

Queener, H.

Romero–Borja, F.

Ronchi, L.

Roorda, A.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Toraldo di Francia, G.

van Blokland, G. J.

G. J. van Blokland, Vision Res. 26, 495 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vargas-Martín, F.

Vohnsen, B.

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Proc. SPIE 4964, 24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wade, A. R.

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light 8, 129 (1998).

Webb, R. H.

Williams, D. R.

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, J. Vision 2, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Yellot, J. I.

J. I. Yellot, Vision Res. 22, 1205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Comp. Neurol. (1)

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, J. Comp. Neurol. 292, 497 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Vision (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, J. Vision 2, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Light (1)

A. R. Wade and F. W. Fitzke, Lasers Light 8, 129 (1998).

Nature (1)

A. Roorda and D. R. Williams, Nature 397, 520 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

W. S. Stiles and B. H. Crawford, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 112, 428 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Vohnsen, I. Iglesias, and P. Artal, Proc. SPIE 4964, 24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (2)

G. J. van Blokland, Vision Res. 26, 495 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Yellot, Vision Res. 22, 1205 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Laser Institute of America, “American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers,” (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the confocal SLO used for imaging of the eye’s fundus (E), including L, a laser diode; S1 resonant and S2 nonresonant galvanometric mirror scanners; P, confocal pinhole; and D, a photomultiplier tube for detection. Below are diagrams that illustrate the underlying imaging principle: (b) the incoming scanning beam coupled to a single (or a few) cone photoreceptors (C) and (c) the corresponding light returned from the retina that contains guided in addition to scattered components that are imaged in the plane of the pinhole.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Retinal images (a), (b) 8°×8° and (c)–(f) 2°×2° obtained with various sizes of the confocal pinhole: (a), (c) 200, (d) 100, and (e) 50 µm and (b), (f) 30 µm. The square in (a) indicates the area imaged in (c)–(f). Images (a) and (b) are centered at 4° from the central fovea in the nasal direction. The average signal (normalized) is (a) 1.00, (b) 0.04, (c) 0.94, (d) 0.32, (e) 0.10, (f) 0.04.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top, two-dimensional Fourier spectra at retinal eccentricities of (a) 1° and (b) 7° in the nasal direction. Bottom, corresponding radial Fourier spectra at the same retinal locations of 1° (filled circles and solid curve) and 7° (open circles and dotted curve). Each spectrum is an average of 10 calculated from similar sections of 2°×2° images. The dc component has been set to zero.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retinal images 2°×2° obtained at different depths of the retina by axial displacement of the 30µm pinhole. It has been displaced by (a) 5 and (b) 10 mm toward the eye compared with the image in Fig. 2(f), corresponding to 300 and 600 µm, respectively, at the retina.

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