Abstract

Optical monitoring relates the dynamic changes in measured light intensity to the extent of treatment-induced coagulation that occurs during laser interstitial thermal therapy. We utilized a two-region Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the nature of the changes in interstitial radiance and fluence that result from the formation of a volume of thermal coagulation surrounding a cylindrical emitter. Using simulation results, we demonstrate that radiance sensors are more sensitive than traditional fluence sensors to coagulation-induced scattering changes. Radiance measurements take advantage of directional detection angles that are more receptive to the onset and passing of the coagulation boundary. We performed experiments with albumen phantoms to demonstrate the practicality of the radiance method for monitoring interstitial laser thermal therapy.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. G. Bown, World J. Surg. 7, 700 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Manns, P. J. Milne, X. Gonzalez-Cirre, D. B. Denham, J. M. Parel, and D. S. Robinson, Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 94 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2407 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 543 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. T. Germer, C. Isbert, G. Muller, and H. J. Buhr, Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 307 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. L. Thomsen, in Laser Induced Interstitial Thermal Therapy, A. Roggan and G. Muller, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), p. 459.
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    [CrossRef]
  9. W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2177 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. M. Whelan, P. Chung, L. C.-L. Chin, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, N91 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. T. Germer, C. Isbert, G. Muller, and H. J. Buhr, Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2407 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, R. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2359 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Whelan, P. Chung, L. C.-L. Chin, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, N91 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. N. Iizuka, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Manns, P. J. Milne, X. Gonzalez-Cirre, D. B. Denham, J. M. Parel, and D. S. Robinson, Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2177 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. A. Sapareto and W. C. Dewey, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 10, 787 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

S. G. Bown, World J. Surg. 7, 700 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

S. G. Bown, World J. Surg. 7, 700 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buhr, H. J.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. T. Germer, C. Isbert, G. Muller, and H. J. Buhr, Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2177 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chin, L. C. L.

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2407 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, L. C.-L.

W. M. Whelan, P. Chung, L. C.-L. Chin, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, N91 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, P.

W. M. Whelan, P. Chung, L. C.-L. Chin, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, N91 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denham, D. B.

F. Manns, P. J. Milne, X. Gonzalez-Cirre, D. B. Denham, J. M. Parel, and D. S. Robinson, Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dewey, W. C.

S. A. Sapareto and W. C. Dewey, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 10, 787 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickey, D. J.

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, R. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2359 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Germer, C. T.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. T. Germer, C. Isbert, G. Muller, and H. J. Buhr, Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez-Cirre, X.

F. Manns, P. J. Milne, X. Gonzalez-Cirre, D. B. Denham, J. M. Parel, and D. S. Robinson, Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, M. N.

M. N. Iizuka, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Isbert, C.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. T. Germer, C. Isbert, G. Muller, and H. J. Buhr, Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Manns, F.

F. Manns, P. J. Milne, X. Gonzalez-Cirre, D. B. Denham, J. M. Parel, and D. S. Robinson, Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Milne, P. J.

F. Manns, P. J. Milne, X. Gonzalez-Cirre, D. B. Denham, J. M. Parel, and D. S. Robinson, Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moore, R. B.

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, R. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2359 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, G.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. T. Germer, C. Isbert, G. Muller, and H. J. Buhr, Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Parel, J. M.

F. Manns, P. J. Milne, X. Gonzalez-Cirre, D. B. Denham, J. M. Parel, and D. S. Robinson, Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2177 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, R. C.

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, R. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2359 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritz, J. P.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. T. Germer, C. Isbert, G. Muller, and H. J. Buhr, Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. S.

F. Manns, P. J. Milne, X. Gonzalez-Cirre, D. B. Denham, J. M. Parel, and D. S. Robinson, Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roggan, A.

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. T. Germer, C. Isbert, G. Muller, and H. J. Buhr, Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sapareto, S. A.

S. A. Sapareto and W. C. Dewey, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 10, 787 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sherar, M. D.

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2407 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Whelan, P. Chung, L. C.-L. Chin, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, N91 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Iizuka, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, S. L.

S. L. Thomsen, in Laser Induced Interstitial Thermal Therapy, A. Roggan and G. Muller, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), p. 459.

Tulip, J.

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, R. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2359 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Whelan, P. Chung, L. C.-L. Chin, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, N91 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2407 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Iizuka, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2177 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Whelan, W. M.

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2407 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Whelan, P. Chung, L. C.-L. Chin, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, N91 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2177 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1)

S. A. Sapareto and W. C. Dewey, Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 10, 787 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (3)

F. Manns, P. J. Milne, X. Gonzalez-Cirre, D. B. Denham, J. M. Parel, and D. S. Robinson, Lasers Surg. Med. 23, 94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ritz, A. Roggan, C. T. Germer, C. Isbert, G. Muller, and H. J. Buhr, Lasers Surg. Med. 28, 307 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Iizuka, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (4)

D. J. Dickey, R. B. Moore, R. C. Rayner, and J. Tulip, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2359 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Whelan, P. Chung, L. C.-L. Chin, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, N91 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, M. D. Sherar, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2407 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. L. Chin, W. M. Whelan, and I. A. Vitkin, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

World J. Surg. (1)

S. G. Bown, World J. Surg. 7, 700 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. L. Thomsen, in Laser Induced Interstitial Thermal Therapy, A. Roggan and G. Muller, eds. (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995), p. 459.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

MC and phantom measurements of radiance at ρ=2.85 mm before LITT rc=0 and with the coagulation boundary inside rc=1.5 mm and beyond rc=4 mm the radiance detector location. Also plotted is the relative change, Lrc=4 mm/Lrc=0 mm. Optical properties are given in text. Inset, modeling geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimentally measured changes in radiance at 0°, L0°, and fluence, Φ, as a function of heating time. For clarity a schematic diagram has been overlaid on the photograph. (b) Experimentally measured changes in radiance at 180°, L180°, and fluence, Φ, as a function of heating time.

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