Abstract

A gold ridge microstructure fabricated to a height of λ/8 on a high-reflectivity substrate behaves as a wave-front-splitting self-referencing interferometer in phase quadrature when illuminated by a Gaussian laser beam and observed in the far field along the optic axis. When immuno-gammaglobulin (IgG) antibodies are selectively immobilized on the gold microstructure, they recognize and bind to a specific antigen, which shifts the relative optical phase of the interferometer and modifies the far-field diffracted intensity. We detect bound antigen interferometrically on spinning disks at a sampling rate of 100 kHz and verify the interferometric nature of the signal by using two quadratures of opposite sign to rule out effects of dynamic light scattering. Strong molecular recognition is demonstrated by the absence of binding to nontarget molecules but strong signal change in response to a specific antigen. This BioCD has the potential to be applied as a spinning-disk interferometric immunoassay and biosensor.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. H. W. Sanders and A. Manz, Trends Analyt. Chem. 19, 364 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Marx, Science 289, 1670 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Meldrum, Genome Res. 10, 1288 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, Science 289, 1760 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  5. F. E. Regnier, B. He, S. Lin, and J. Busse, Trends Biotechnol. 17, 101 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).
  7. B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 324 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Gao, M. Sanger, R. Luginbuhl, and H. Sigrist, Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 317 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Jenison, S. Yang, A. Haeberli, and B. Polisky, Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 62 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Hanel and G. Gauglitz, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 372, 91 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, and J. Polster, Biosen. Bioelectron. 8, 387 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Fattinger, H. Koller, D. Schlatter, and P. Wehrli, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 99 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc Handbook, 2nd ed. (A-R Editions, Middleton, Wis., 1992).
  14. A. Bernard, J. P. Renault, B. Michel, H. R. Bosshard, and E. Delamarche, Adv. Mater 12, 1067 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. Hanel and G. Gauglitz, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 372, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Jenison, S. Yang, A. Haeberli, and B. Polisky, Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 62 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (5)

A. Bernard, J. P. Renault, B. Michel, H. R. Bosshard, and E. Delamarche, Adv. Mater 12, 1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. H. W. Sanders and A. Manz, Trends Analyt. Chem. 19, 364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Marx, Science 289, 1670 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Meldrum, Genome Res. 10, 1288 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, Science 289, 1760 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

F. E. Regnier, B. He, S. Lin, and J. Busse, Trends Biotechnol. 17, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

1997 (1)

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Gao, M. Sanger, R. Luginbuhl, and H. Sigrist, Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, and J. Polster, Biosen. Bioelectron. 8, 387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Fattinger, H. Koller, D. Schlatter, and P. Wehrli, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, A.

A. Bernard, J. P. Renault, B. Michel, H. R. Bosshard, and E. Delamarche, Adv. Mater 12, 1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bogart, G. R.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Bosshard, H. R.

A. Bernard, J. P. Renault, B. Michel, H. R. Bosshard, and E. Delamarche, Adv. Mater 12, 1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brecht, A.

A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, and J. Polster, Biosen. Bioelectron. 8, 387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Busse, J.

F. E. Regnier, B. He, S. Lin, and J. Busse, Trends Biotechnol. 17, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christian, J.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Clark, D.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Delamarche, E.

A. Bernard, J. P. Renault, B. Michel, H. R. Bosshard, and E. Delamarche, Adv. Mater 12, 1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Edlinger, J.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

C. Fattinger, H. Koller, D. Schlatter, and P. Wehrli, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, M. Sanger, R. Luginbuhl, and H. Sigrist, Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

C. Hanel and G. Gauglitz, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 372, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, and J. Polster, Biosen. Bioelectron. 8, 387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haeberli, A.

R. Jenison, S. Yang, A. Haeberli, and B. Polisky, Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 62 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanel, C.

C. Hanel and G. Gauglitz, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 372, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

He, B.

F. E. Regnier, B. He, S. Lin, and J. Busse, Trends Biotechnol. 17, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopkins, D.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Jenison, R.

R. Jenison, S. Yang, A. Haeberli, and B. Polisky, Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 62 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koller, H.

C. Fattinger, H. Koller, D. Schlatter, and P. Wehrli, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kunz, R. E.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

F. E. Regnier, B. He, S. Lin, and J. Busse, Trends Biotechnol. 17, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luginbuhl, R.

H. Gao, M. Sanger, R. Luginbuhl, and H. Sigrist, Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

MacBeath, G.

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, Science 289, 1760 (2000).
[PubMed]

Maisenholder, B.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Manz, A.

G. H. W. Sanders and A. Manz, Trends Analyt. Chem. 19, 364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marx, J.

J. Marx, Science 289, 1670 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maul, D.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Meldrum, D.

D. Meldrum, Genome Res. 10, 1288 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, B.

A. Bernard, J. P. Renault, B. Michel, H. R. Bosshard, and E. Delamarche, Adv. Mater 12, 1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moddel, G.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Moser, M.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ostroff, R. M.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Pohlmann, K. C.

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc Handbook, 2nd ed. (A-R Editions, Middleton, Wis., 1992).

Polisky, B.

R. Jenison, S. Yang, A. Haeberli, and B. Polisky, Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 62 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polster, J.

A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, and J. Polster, Biosen. Bioelectron. 8, 387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Regnier, F. E.

F. E. Regnier, B. He, S. Lin, and J. Busse, Trends Biotechnol. 17, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renault, J. P.

A. Bernard, J. P. Renault, B. Michel, H. R. Bosshard, and E. Delamarche, Adv. Mater 12, 1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riel, P.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, G. H. W.

G. H. W. Sanders and A. Manz, Trends Analyt. Chem. 19, 364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanger, M.

H. Gao, M. Sanger, R. Luginbuhl, and H. Sigrist, Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schlatter, D.

C. Fattinger, H. Koller, D. Schlatter, and P. Wehrli, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, S. L.

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, Science 289, 1760 (2000).
[PubMed]

Sigrist, H.

H. Gao, M. Sanger, R. Luginbuhl, and H. Sigrist, Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, B.

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Wehrli, P.

C. Fattinger, H. Koller, D. Schlatter, and P. Wehrli, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

R. Jenison, S. Yang, A. Haeberli, and B. Polisky, Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 62 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Zappe, H. P.

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater (1)

A. Bernard, J. P. Renault, B. Michel, H. R. Bosshard, and E. Delamarche, Adv. Mater 12, 1067 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

C. Hanel and G. Gauglitz, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 372, 91 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biosen. Bioelectron. (1)

A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, and J. Polster, Biosen. Bioelectron. 8, 387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

C. Fattinger, H. Koller, D. Schlatter, and P. Wehrli, Biosens. Bioelectron. 8, 99 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, M. Sanger, R. Luginbuhl, and H. Sigrist, Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 317 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) (1)

R. M. Ostroff, D. Maul, G. R. Bogart, S. Yang, J. Christian, D. Hopkins, D. Clark, B. Trotter, and G. Moddel, Clin. Chem. (Washington, D.C.) 44, 2031 (1998).

Genome Res. (1)

D. Meldrum, Genome Res. 10, 1288 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

R. Jenison, S. Yang, A. Haeberli, and B. Polisky, Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 62 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

G. MacBeath and S. L. Schreiber, Science 289, 1760 (2000).
[PubMed]

J. Marx, Science 289, 1670 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

B. Maisenholder, H. P. Zappe, R. E. Kunz, P. Riel, M. Moser, and J. Edlinger, Sens. Actuators B 38-39, 324 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trends Analyt. Chem. (1)

G. H. W. Sanders and A. Manz, Trends Analyt. Chem. 19, 364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trends Biotechnol. (1)

F. E. Regnier, B. He, S. Lin, and J. Busse, Trends Biotechnol. 17, 101 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K. C. Pohlmann, The Compact Disc Handbook, 2nd ed. (A-R Editions, Middleton, Wis., 1992).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the gold spokes evaporated on a 2-in. (5.08-cm) dielectric mirror substrate. There are 1024 spokes on a single disk, but all of them are not shown in the diagram for clarity. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup to detect the far-field diffraction from the BioCD. The 25µm aperture is placed at the Fourier plane formed at the focal plane of the lens. BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detection of mouse IgG; specificity of the detection scheme. The BioCD is printed with antimouse IgG. Incubation with nonspecific rabbit IgG produces no change in the far-field diffraction intensity. However, subsequent incubation with specific mouse IgG produces a drop in the far-field diffraction intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Verification of the interferometric nature of the detection. (a) Decrease in far-field intensity with an increase in optical phase for a λ/8 device. (b) Increase in far-field intensity with an increase in optical phase for a 3λ/8 device with reversed interferometric response. The BioCD is printed with antimouse IgG (Ab) and incubated with mouse IgG (Ag).

Metrics