Abstract

We demonstrate the integration of a single-crystal magneto-optical film onto thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides by use of direct wafer bonding. Simulations show that the high confinement and asymmetric structure of SOI allows an enhancement of 3× over the nonreciprocal phase shift achieved in previous designs; this value is confirmed by our measurements. Our structure will allow compact magneto-optical nonreciprocal devices, such as isolators, integrated on a silicon waveguiding platform.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Auracher and H. H. Write, Opt. Commun. 13, 435 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 922 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Zhuromskyy, M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1200 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2158 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Izuhara, J. Fujita, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 167 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Yokoi and T. Mizumoto, Electron. Lett. 33, 1787 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. The beam propagation method simulations were carried out with BeamProp software from RSoft Design Group, http://www.rsoftdesign.com/ .
  9. H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, and M. Ye, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Y. Tong and U. Gösele, Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science and Technology (Wiley, New York, 1999).
  12. Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 711 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002

T. Izuhara, J. Fujita, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Zhuromskyy, M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Yokoi and T. Mizumoto, Electron. Lett. 33, 1787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, and M. Ye, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1986

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 711 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 922 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975

F. Auracher and H. H. Write, Opt. Commun. 13, 435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, R. U.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Auracher, F.

F. Auracher and H. H. Write, Opt. Commun. 13, 435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bahlmann, N.

O. Zhuromskyy, M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhara, V.

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dötsch, H.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Zhuromskyy, M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, and M. Ye, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, A.

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, J.

T. Izuhara, J. Fujita, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, R.

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gösele, U.

Q. Y. Tong and U. Gösele, Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science and Technology (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Gutierrez, C.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, P.

O. Zhuromskyy, M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, and M. Ye, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Inuzuka, H.

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 711 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Izuhara, T.

T. Izuhara, J. Fujita, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, T.

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 711 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, R.

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

T. Izuhara, J. Fujita, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lohmeyer, M.

O. Zhuromskyy, M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lührmann, B.

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, and M. Ye, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mizumoto, T.

H. Yokoi and T. Mizumoto, Electron. Lett. 33, 1787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 922 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Naito, Y.

T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 922 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, Y.

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 711 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

T. Izuhara, J. Fujita, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popkov, A. F.

O. Zhuromskyy, M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Randles, M.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salz, D.

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schröteler, F.-J.

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sure, S.

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, and M. Ye, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Tong and U. Gösele, Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science and Technology (Wiley, New York, 1999).

Villareal, R.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wallenhorst, M.

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilkens, L.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, H. P.

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, and M. Ye, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Write, H. H.

F. Auracher and H. H. Write, Opt. Commun. 13, 435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 711 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ye, M.

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, and M. Ye, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, H.

H. Yokoi and T. Mizumoto, Electron. Lett. 33, 1787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhuromskyy, O.

O. Zhuromskyy, M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dötsch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2158 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. U. Ahmad, R. M. Osgood, M. Randles, C. Gutierrez, and R. Villareal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 998 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. Yokoi and T. Mizumoto, Electron. Lett. 33, 1787 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

O. Zhuromskyy, M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, and A. F. Popkov, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F.-J. Schröteler, M. Wallenhorst, and H. Dötsch, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 818 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okamura, H. Inuzuka, T. Kikuchi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 711 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. Izuhara, J. Fujita, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Magn.

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, and M. Ye, IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

T. Mizumoto and Y. Naito, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 922 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

F. Auracher and H. H. Write, Opt. Commun. 13, 435 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. S. Foresi, D. R. Lim, L. Liao, A. M. Agarwal, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 3007, 112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

The beam propagation method simulations were carried out with BeamProp software from RSoft Design Group, http://www.rsoftdesign.com/ .

Q. Y. Tong and U. Gösele, Semiconductor Wafer Bonding: Science and Technology (Wiley, New York, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed design of the transverse cross section of a MO phase shifter consisting of a garnet cover layer on a SOI strip waveguide. The figure also shows the fundamental TM mode, which is calculated with a beam propagation method simulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated (curves) and measured (symbols) nonreciprocal phase shift in three combinations of waveguide and materials. The curves are calculated with Eq. (1), with a MO coefficient of xz=0.0004.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots showing the measured MO phase shift (lower) and the temporal variation of the magnetic field (upper). Note that interference is seen for only the TM mode.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

=xx0ixz0yy0-ixz0zz,
dk02f-β21/2=tan-1fk02f-β21/2×β2-k02eff1/2eff+βxzxxeff+tan-1fk02f-β21/2β2-k02s1/2s,
Δβ=-Hyx2xxz/2dx--1Hy2dx,

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