Abstract

We report a simple method for fabricating a concave refractive microlens array (MLA) in solgel glass by using a proximity-effect-assisted reflow technique. The solgel concave refractive MLA that we fabricated had excellent surface smoothness; good dimensional conformity, with an 8.23% nonuniformity of the microlens elements; and structural perfection, with a biggest deviation of 1% from a perfect concave spherical crown. The relative error between the measured and the designed values of the concave MLA’s focal length was only 1.83%. Compared with the conventional fabrication techniques for concave MLAs, the proposed method has significant advantages including simplicity, low cost, good element conformity, and smooth device surface.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. B. Veldkamp, Proc. SPIE 1544, 287 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Singireva, V. Kohn, I. Singireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and M. X. Wu, Binary Optics (Chinese Defence Industry Press, Beijing, 1998), pp. 212–218 and 318–326.
  4. M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Yidog, E. R. Dougherty, and M. L. Bitter, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 364 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Schena, D. Shalon, and R. Daris, Science 270, 467 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Suleski and D. O’Shea, Appl. Opt. 34, 7507 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, Opt. Eng. 33, 3556 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and V. Kudryashov, Opt. Lett. 28, 731 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, and J. Bu, Opt. Eng. 42, 2180 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, and N. Tohge, Appl. Opt. 39, 489 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and V. Kudryashov, Opt. Lett. 28, 731 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, and J. Bu, Opt. Eng. 42, 2180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Yidog, E. R. Dougherty, and M. L. Bitter, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Singireva, V. Kohn, I. Singireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

M. Schena, D. Shalon, and R. Daris, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Suleski and D. O’Shea, Appl. Opt. 34, 7507 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, Opt. Eng. 33, 3556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. B. Veldkamp, Proc. SPIE 1544, 287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, A. P.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bitter, M. L.

C. Yidog, E. R. Dougherty, and M. L. Bitter, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bu, J.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and V. Kudryashov, Opt. Lett. 28, 731 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, and J. Bu, Opt. Eng. 42, 2180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, and J. Bu, Opt. Eng. 42, 2180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daris, R.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, and R. Daris, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, E. R.

C. Yidog, E. R. Dougherty, and M. L. Bitter, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, Opt. Eng. 33, 3556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W. J.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and V. Kudryashov, Opt. Lett. 28, 731 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, and J. Bu, Opt. Eng. 42, 2180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Honkannen, S.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G. F.

G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and M. X. Wu, Binary Optics (Chinese Defence Industry Press, Beijing, 1998), pp. 212–218 and 318–326.

Kintaka, K.

Kohn, V.

A. Singireva, V. Kohn, I. Singireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, V.

Lengeler, B.

A. Singireva, V. Kohn, I. Singireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M. E.

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, N. Q.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and V. Kudryashov, Opt. Lett. 28, 731 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, and J. Bu, Opt. Eng. 42, 2180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Nordman, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordman, O.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, D.

Pedersen, J.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, Opt. Eng. 33, 3556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rantala, J. T.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, Opt. Eng. 33, 3556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schena, M.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, and R. Daris, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalon, D.

M. Schena, D. Shalon, and R. Daris, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singireva, A.

A. Singireva, V. Kohn, I. Singireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singireva, I.

A. Singireva, V. Kohn, I. Singireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suleski, T.

Tohge, N.

Vahakangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

W. B. Veldkamp, Proc. SPIE 1544, 287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. X.

G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and M. X. Wu, Binary Optics (Chinese Defence Industry Press, Beijing, 1998), pp. 212–218 and 318–326.

Yan, Y. B.

G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and M. X. Wu, Binary Optics (Chinese Defence Industry Press, Beijing, 1998), pp. 212–218 and 318–326.

Yidog, C.

C. Yidog, E. R. Dougherty, and M. L. Bitter, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.-C.

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, and J. Bu, Opt. Eng. 42, 2180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and V. Kudryashov, Opt. Lett. 28, 731 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. T. Rantala, N. Nordman, O. Nordman, J. Vahakangas, S. Honkannen, and N. Peyghambarian, Electron. Lett. 34, 455 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

C. Yidog, E. R. Dougherty, and M. L. Bitter, J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Singireva, V. Kohn, I. Singireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature 384, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

M. E. Motamedi, A. P. Andrews, and W. J. Gunning, Opt. Eng. 33, 3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, Opt. Eng. 33, 3556 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. He, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. C. Cheong, and J. Bu, Opt. Eng. 42, 2180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. B. Veldkamp, Proc. SPIE 1544, 287 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Schena, D. Shalon, and R. Daris, Science 270, 467 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. F. Jin, Y. B. Yan, and M. X. Wu, Binary Optics (Chinese Defence Industry Press, Beijing, 1998), pp. 212–218 and 318–326.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic showing the steps in fabrication of a solgel concave MLA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Design diagrams: (a) characteristic parameters of a concave microlens, (b) mask layouts of part of a 512×512 element concave MLA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-dimensional surface profile of the 512×512 element concave MLA in a solgel material.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface profile curve along the diameter direction of the concave microlenses in solgel material.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface profile deviation between the actual and the designed concave microlenses.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H=ch=cR-R2-D241/2=c1-nf-1-n2f2-D241/2,

Metrics