Abstract

We report on what we believe is the first demonstration of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in flames by use of diode lasers. Indium atoms seeded into an atmospheric-pressure flame at trace concentrations are excited by a blue GaN laser operating near 410 nm. The laser is mounted in an external-cavity configuration, and the hyperfine spectrum of the 5P21/26S21/2 transition is captured at high resolution in single-wavelength sweeps lasting less than one tenth of a second. The research demonstrates the potential of diode-based LIF for practical diagnostics of high-temperature reactive flows.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. W. Daily, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23, 133 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Wolfrum, in Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), p. 1.
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  3. R. G. Joklik and J. W. Daily, Appl. Opt. 21, 4158 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. E. Dec and J. O. Keller, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 1737.
  5. R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. G. Allen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 587.
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. Ebert, T. Fernhoz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, and H. Jaritz, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 423.
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Nakamura, Science 281, 956 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. U. Gustafsson, J. Alnis, and S. Svanberg, Am. J. Phys. 68, 660 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski are preparing a manuscript to be called “A wide continuous tuning range blue external cavity diode laser system.”
  13. H. Leinen, D. Gläßner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 70, 567 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Candler, Atomic Spectra and the Vector Model (Hilger, London, 1964).
  15. J. Eberz, G. Huber, T. Kühl, and G. Ulm, J. Phys. B 17, 3075 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. I. Sobelman, L. A. Vainshtein, and E. A. Yukov, Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, in Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), p. 85.
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).
  19. J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.
  20. S. T. Sanders, D. W. Mattison, L. Ma, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, Opt. Express 10, 505 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

U. Gustafsson, J. Alnis, and S. Svanberg, Am. J. Phys. 68, 660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Leinen, D. Gläßner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 70, 567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, Science 281, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. W. Daily, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

J. Eberz, G. Huber, T. Kühl, and G. Ulm, J. Phys. B 17, 3075 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Aldén, M.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, in Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), p. 85.
[CrossRef]

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

Allen, M. G.

M. G. Allen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alnis, J.

U. Gustafsson, J. Alnis, and S. Svanberg, Am. J. Phys. 68, 660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baer, D. S.

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 587.
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. A.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 587.
[CrossRef]

Burns, I. S.

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski are preparing a manuscript to be called “A wide continuous tuning range blue external cavity diode laser system.”

Candler, C.

C. Candler, Atomic Spectra and the Vector Model (Hilger, London, 1964).

Daily, J. W.

Dec, J. E.

J. E. Dec and J. O. Keller, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 1737.

Ebert, V.

V. Ebert, T. Fernhoz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, and H. Jaritz, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 423.
[CrossRef]

Eberz, J.

J. Eberz, G. Huber, T. Kühl, and G. Ulm, J. Phys. B 17, 3075 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

Engström, J.

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, in Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), p. 85.
[CrossRef]

Fernhoz, T.

V. Ebert, T. Fernhoz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, and H. Jaritz, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 423.
[CrossRef]

Giesemann, C.

V. Ebert, T. Fernhoz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, and H. Jaritz, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 423.
[CrossRef]

Gläßner, D.

H. Leinen, D. Gläßner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 70, 567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, U.

U. Gustafsson, J. Alnis, and S. Svanberg, Am. J. Phys. 68, 660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

S. T. Sanders, D. W. Mattison, L. Ma, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, Opt. Express 10, 505 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 587.
[CrossRef]

Haubrich, D.

H. Leinen, D. Gläßner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 70, 567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

J. Eberz, G. Huber, T. Kühl, and G. Ulm, J. Phys. B 17, 3075 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hult, J.

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski are preparing a manuscript to be called “A wide continuous tuning range blue external cavity diode laser system.”

Jaritz, H.

V. Ebert, T. Fernhoz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, and H. Jaritz, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 423.
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

Jenkins, T. P.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 587.
[CrossRef]

Joklik, R. G.

Josefsson, G.

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

Kaminski, C. F.

C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, in Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), p. 85.
[CrossRef]

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski are preparing a manuscript to be called “A wide continuous tuning range blue external cavity diode laser system.”

Keller, J. O.

J. E. Dec and J. O. Keller, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 1737.

Kühl, T.

J. Eberz, G. Huber, T. Kühl, and G. Ulm, J. Phys. B 17, 3075 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Leinen, H.

H. Leinen, D. Gläßner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 70, 567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

MacAdam, K. B.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, I.

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

Mattison, D. W.

Meschede, D.

H. Leinen, D. Gläßner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 70, 567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H.

H. Leinen, D. Gläßner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 70, 567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, R. M.

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Science 281, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pitz, H.

V. Ebert, T. Fernhoz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, and H. Jaritz, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 423.
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, D. W. Mattison, L. Ma, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, Opt. Express 10, 505 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 587.
[CrossRef]

Sobelman, I. I.

I. I. Sobelman, L. A. Vainshtein, and E. A. Yukov, Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
[CrossRef]

Steinbach, A.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

U. Gustafsson, J. Alnis, and S. Svanberg, Am. J. Phys. 68, 660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teichert, H.

V. Ebert, T. Fernhoz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, and H. Jaritz, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 423.
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

J. Eberz, G. Huber, T. Kühl, and G. Ulm, J. Phys. B 17, 3075 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vainshtein, L. A.

I. I. Sobelman, L. A. Vainshtein, and E. A. Yukov, Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, J.

V. Ebert, T. Fernhoz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, and H. Jaritz, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 423.
[CrossRef]

J. Wolfrum, in Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Wynands, R.

H. Leinen, D. Gläßner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 70, 567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yukov, E. A.

I. I. Sobelman, L. A. Vainshtein, and E. A. Yukov, Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (2)

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, Am. J. Phys. 60, 1098 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Gustafsson, J. Alnis, and S. Svanberg, Am. J. Phys. 68, 660 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Leinen, D. Gläßner, H. Metcalf, R. Wynands, D. Haubrich, and D. Meschede, Appl. Phys. B 70, 567 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

J. Eberz, G. Huber, T. Kühl, and G. Ulm, J. Phys. B 17, 3075 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 327 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

J. W. Daily, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 23, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Nakamura, Science 281, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

J. Wolfrum, in Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Dec and J. O. Keller, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 1737.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 587.
[CrossRef]

V. Ebert, T. Fernhoz, C. Giesemann, H. Pitz, H. Teichert, J. Wolfrum, and H. Jaritz, in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Vol. 28 (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 2000), p. 423.
[CrossRef]

I. I. Sobelman, L. A. Vainshtein, and E. A. Yukov, Excitation of Atoms and Broadening of Spectral Lines (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Kaminski, J. Engström, and M. Aldén, in Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1998), p. 85.
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

J. Engström, C. F. Kaminski, M. Aldén, G. Josefsson, and I. Magnusson, in 1999 SAE International Congress and Exposition (Society of Automobile Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1999), paper 1999-01-3541.

C. Candler, Atomic Spectra and the Vector Model (Hilger, London, 1964).

J. Hult, I. S. Burns, and C. F. Kaminski are preparing a manuscript to be called “A wide continuous tuning range blue external cavity diode laser system.”

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photo of flame and indium LIF signal along the laser beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LIF spectrum of the 5P21/26S21/2 indium hyperfine structure obtained from an indium-seeded flame. A single-scan spectrum is shown, as well as an average over 50 scans of the diode laser output wavelength. Dashed curves, fit of four Voigt profiles to the average spectrum, corresponding to the four 5P21/26S21/2 hyperfine transitions. Inset, indium energy level scheme.

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