Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a powerful approach to spectral bandpass engineering (apodization) of one-dimensional channel-waveguide Bragg reflectors. Bandpass engineering is accomplished by precise photolithographic control of the length and the longitudinal placement of individual grating lines, which provides unique line-by-line diffractive amplitude and phase control. Channel-waveguide gratings that exhibit complex filtering functions have been fabricated and modeled. When a second-order apodization effect that comprises effective waveguide refractive-index variation with grating-line length is included in the simulation, extraordinary agreement between predicted and observed spectral passband profiles is obtained.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003

2002

J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Erni, and G. L. Bona, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, Electron. Lett. 35, 1096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Horita, S. Tanaka, and Y. Matsushima, Electron. Lett. 34, 2240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

Y. Shibata, T. Tamamura, S. Oku, and Y. Kondo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. M. Ragdale, D. Reid, D. J. Robbins, J. Buus, and I. Bennion, J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1146 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adar, R.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Azana, J.

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N.

Bennion, I.

C. M. Ragdale, D. Reid, D. J. Robbins, J. Buus, and I. Bennion, J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1146 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Besley, J. A.

Bilodeau, F.

Bona, G. L.

D. Wiesmann, R. Germann, G. L. Bona, C. David, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Erni, and G. L. Bona, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buus, J.

C. M. Ragdale, D. Reid, D. J. Robbins, J. Buus, and I. Bennion, J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1146 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carballar, A.

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cartaxo, A. V. T.

J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

D. Wiesmann, R. Germann, G. L. Bona, C. David, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Erni, and G. L. Bona, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Erni, D.

D. Wiesmann, R. Germann, G. L. Bona, C. David, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Erni, and G. L. Bona, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Germann, R.

D. Wiesmann, R. Germann, G. L. Bona, C. David, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Erni, and G. L. Bona, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, C.

C. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Lithography fabricated planar holographic Bragg reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, Electron. Lett. 35, 1096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

Horita, M.

M. Horita, S. Tanaka, and Y. Matsushima, Electron. Lett. 34, 2240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iazikov, D.

C. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Lithography fabricated planar holographic Bragg reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Jackel, H.

Johnson, A. E.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, Electron. Lett. 35, 1096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Kazarinov, R. F.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kistler, R. H.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

Y. Shibata, T. Tamamura, S. Oku, and Y. Kondo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C.

Malo, B.

Maniloff, E. S.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, Electron. Lett. 35, 1096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marra, C.

Matsushima, Y.

M. Horita, S. Tanaka, and Y. Matsushima, Electron. Lett. 34, 2240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, Electron. Lett. 35, 1096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Lithography fabricated planar holographic Bragg reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Munroe, M. J.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, Electron. Lett. 35, 1096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muriel, M. A.

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

T. Komukai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

Novak, D.

Oku, S.

Y. Shibata, T. Tamamura, S. Oku, and Y. Kondo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ragdale, C. M.

C. M. Ragdale, D. Reid, D. J. Robbins, J. Buus, and I. Bennion, J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1146 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rebola, J. L.

J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

Reid, D.

C. M. Ragdale, D. Reid, D. J. Robbins, J. Buus, and I. Bennion, J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1146 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

C. M. Ragdale, D. Reid, D. J. Robbins, J. Buus, and I. Bennion, J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1146 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

Y. Shibata, T. Tamamura, S. Oku, and Y. Kondo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sweetser, J. N.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, Electron. Lett. 35, 1096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamamura, T.

Y. Shibata, T. Tamamura, S. Oku, and Y. Kondo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

T. Komukai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

M. Horita, S. Tanaka, and Y. Matsushima, Electron. Lett. 34, 2240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Theriault, S.

Weeks, C.

Wiesmann, D.

D. Wiesmann, R. Germann, G. L. Bona, C. David, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 417 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Erni, and G. L. Bona, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Adar, C. H. Henry, R. H. Kistler, and R. F. Kazarinov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1779 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, A. E. Johnson, E. S. Maniloff, T. W. Mossberg, M. J. Munroe, and J. N. Sweetser, Electron. Lett. 35, 1096 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Horita, S. Tanaka, and Y. Matsushima, Electron. Lett. 34, 2240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Carballar, M. A. Muriel, and J. Azana, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 694 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Erni, and G. L. Bona, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 639 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shibata, T. Tamamura, S. Oku, and Y. Kondo, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1222 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

C. Marra, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, C. Lim, L. Reekie, J. A. Besley, C. Weeks, and N. Baker, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 32 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1277 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Sel. Areas Commun.

C. M. Ragdale, D. Reid, D. J. Robbins, J. Buus, and I. Bennion, J. Sel. Areas Commun. 8, 1146 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

C. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, “Lithography fabricated planar holographic Bragg reflectors,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic cross-sectional view (the cut plane is perpendicular to the grating lines) of a channel-waveguide Bragg reflector. (b) Schematic top view (looking down on the grating trenches). d, grating depth; h w, waveguide core height (width); Λ, grating period. The apodization function shown is exemplary and differs from those implemented in fabricated devices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated flat-top filter with constant-waveguide effective refractive index, (b) measured channel-waveguide reflection spectrum, (c) simulated flat-top filter with apodization-dependent effective refractive index, (d) simulated multicolor filter with constant refractive index, (e) measured channel-waveguide reflection spectrum, (f) simulated multicolor filter with apodization-dependent effective refractive index. In each figure the peak reflected power is normalized to 0 dB.

Equations (1)

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Erkline kEinrrkrdr.

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