Abstract

A method is introduced for designing paraxial-domain diffractive elements working over a broad frequency range. The method is based on space-variant manipulation of the state of polarization by form-birefringent binary diffractive structures. It is shown that any scalar phase transmission function can be realized by use of such polarization-modulating structures and that at least in some cases it is even possible to exceed the scalar paraxial-domain upper bounds of diffraction efficiency over a broad frequency band.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. M. Morris and K. J. McIntyre, in Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications, J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Sec. 3.4.
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2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

M. Honkanen, V. Kettunen, J. Tervo, and J. Turunen, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2351 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Tervo and J. Turunen, Opt. Lett. 25, 785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1983 (2)

R. C. Enger and S. K. Case, Appl. Opt. 22, 3220 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Flanders, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, J.

Astilean, S.

Behrmann, G. P.

G. P. Behrmann and J. N. Mait, in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), Chap. 10.

Biener, G.

Bomzon, Z.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999), Sec. 15.5.2.
[CrossRef]

Bovard, B. G.

Cambril, E.

Case, S. K.

Cescato, L. H.

Chavel, P.

Chiao, S.-C.

Davis, J. A.

Deguzman, P. C.

Enger, R. C.

Fernández-Pousa, C. R.

Flanders, D. C.

D. C. Flanders, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gluch, E.

Gori, F.

Hasman, E.

Honkanen, M.

J. Tervo, V. Kettunen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 282 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Honkanen, V. Kettunen, J. Tervo, and J. Turunen, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2351 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, K.

Kettunen, V.

J. Tervo, V. Kettunen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 282 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Honkanen, V. Kettunen, J. Tervo, and J. Turunen, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2351 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kikuta, H.

Kleiner, V.

Kuittinen, M.

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000), Vol. 40, Chap. 5.

Lalanne, Ph.

Launois, H.

Macleod, H. A.

Mait, J. N.

G. P. Behrmann and J. N. Mait, in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), Chap. 10.

McIntyre, K. J.

G. M. Morris and K. J. McIntyre, in Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications, J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Sec. 3.4.

Moreno, I.

Morris, G. M.

G. M. Morris and K. J. McIntyre, in Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications, J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Sec. 3.4.

Nordin, G. P.

Ohira, Y.

Petit, R.

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), pp. 749–763.
[CrossRef]

Streibl, N.

Tervo, J.

Turunen, J.

J. Tervo, V. Kettunen, M. Honkanen, and J. Turunen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 282 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Tervo and J. Turunen, Opt. Lett. 25, 785 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Honkanen, V. Kettunen, J. Tervo, and J. Turunen, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2351 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000), Vol. 40, Chap. 5.

J. Turunen, in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), Chap. 2.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999), Sec. 15.5.2.
[CrossRef]

Wyrowski, F.

F. Wyrowski, Opt. Lett. 16, 1915 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000), Vol. 40, Chap. 5.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. C. Flanders, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 492 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Honkanen, V. Kettunen, J. Tervo, and J. Turunen, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2351 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Other (7)

H. R. Philipp, in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985), pp. 749–763.
[CrossRef]

G. M. Morris and K. J. McIntyre, in Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications, J. Turunen and F. Wyrowski, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1997), Sec. 3.4.

G. P. Behrmann and J. N. Mait, in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), Chap. 10.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999), Sec. 15.5.2.
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2000), Vol. 40, Chap. 5.

R. Petit, Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, in Micro-Optics: Elements, Systems, and Applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997), Chap. 2.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of a form-birefringent, y-invariant, subwavelength-period grating with period d, modulation depth h, minimum transverse feature size g, and refractive indices n0, n1, n2, and n3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency of a 12 beam splitter with period d=0.4λ0; fill factor f=g/d=0.8; modulation depth h=3λ0; and refractive indices n0=1.8, n1=2, and n2=1. The refractive index of the medium behind the element is either n3=1.8 (solid curve) or n3=1 (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency of a 12 beam splitter fabricated in a TiO2 layer on a glass substrate (refractive indices n2=n3=1).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ex,y,ν= 1+expiϕ0D0+1-expiϕ0D-1 exp-iθx,y+1-expiϕ0D1 expiθx,y,
D0=12ExiEyi,
D-1=14Exi+iEyi1i,
D1=14Exi-iEyi1-i.
Ex,y,ν=121-iexpiθx,y.

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