Abstract

We report on a holographic probing technique that allows for measurement of free-electron distribution with fine spatial detail. Plasma is generated by focusing a femtosecond pulse in air. We also demonstrate the capability of the holographic technique of capturing the time evolution of the plasma-generation process.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, A. Aggarwal, and M. Gusev, Appl. Opt. 40, 100 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Liu, M. Centurion, G. Panotopoulos, J. Hong, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 27, 22 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Rokitski, P. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 26, 1125 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Bugayev and M. Gupta, Opt. Lett. 28, 1463 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Bergé and A. Couairon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Braun, G. Korn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Silberger, Opt. Lett. 15, 1282 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Monot, T. Auguste, L. A. Lompré, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1579 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10729 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2003).

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (5)

R. Rokitski, P. Sun, and Y. Fainman, Opt. Lett. 26, 1125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, A. Aggarwal, and M. Gusev, Appl. Opt. 40, 100 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, A.

André, Y.-B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

Bergé, L.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2003).

Braun, A.

Bugayev, A.

Centurion, M.

Chin, S. L.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiron, A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Fainman, Y.

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

Gusev, M.

Hong, J.

Jericho, M. H.

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kreuzer, H. J.

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, Z.

Lompré, L. A.

Mainfray, G.

Manus, C.

Meinertzhagen, I. A.

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mlejnek, M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Monot, P.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Panotopoulos, G.

Pedrini, G.

Petit, S.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Rokitski, R.

Sauerbrey, R.

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schedin, S.

Schillinger, H.

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Silberger, Y.

Squier, J.

Sun, P.

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, Appl. Phys. B 68, 753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

H. J. Kreuzer, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and W. Xu, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13, 10729 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Gabor, Nature 161, 777 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 181, 123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Commun. 171, 285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Tzortzakis, M. A. Franco, Y.-B. André, A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. E 60, R3505 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

L. Bergé and A. Couairon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1003 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Bergé, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5470 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mlejnek, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, and E. M. Wright, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2938 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Holographic setup. An intense femtosecond laser pulse (the pump pulse) is focused by L3 and leaves a plasma trail. A probe pulse traverses the plasma trail a few picoseconds after the pump pulse goes through. The system has a magnification of f2/f1. L1–L3, lenses; M1–M4, mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) In-line hologram of the plasma distribution. The image resolution is 2184×1472, and the pixel size is 6.8 µm×6.8 µm. The hologram is captured at L=30 cm with a magnification of M=12.5. (b) Spatially resolved electron density calculated from the phase change.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron density distribution at various cross sections showing detailed plasma evolution. Distances from the onset of the plasma are 1, 326 µm; 2, 435 µm; 3, 544 µm; 4, 652 µm; 5, 761 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Four instantaneous holographic snapshots of the plasma evolution. Image resolution, 640×480; pixel size, 10 µm×10 µm; L=16 cm; M=2.5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Instantaneous time evolution of the electron density. The relative time of the snapshots is t1=0, t2=1 ps, t3=2 ps, and t4=2.7 ps. Because of the small angular aperture, fine structure is not recovered.

Metrics