Abstract

We demonstrate the advantages of an optically gain-clamped S-band discrete Raman amplifier: low gain variation over a large input dynamic range, effective suppression of Raman transients, and amplifier instability in the strong-pump–weak-signal configuration. We further investigate experimentally the operating conditions necessary for effective gain clamping and demonstrate gain flattening over 30 nm of bandwidth. Thus a gain-clamped discrete Raman amplifier shows promise for practical deployment.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 35, 923 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Qian, J. H. Povlsen, S. N. Knudsen, and L. Gruener-Nielsen, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 36–43.
  3. C.-J. Chen and W. S. Wong, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), OMC2-1.
  4. X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD17-1.
  5. C.-J. Chen, H. Lee, and Y.-J. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), TuC2.

1999 (1)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 35, 923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-J.

C.-J. Chen and W. S. Wong, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), OMC2-1.

C.-J. Chen, H. Lee, and Y.-J. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), TuC2.

Cheng, T.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD17-1.

Cheng, Y.-J.

C.-J. Chen, H. Lee, and Y.-J. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), TuC2.

Chernikov, S. V.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 35, 923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gruener-Nielsen, L.

Y. Qian, J. H. Povlsen, S. N. Knudsen, and L. Gruener-Nielsen, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 36–43.

Knudsen, S. N.

Y. Qian, J. H. Povlsen, S. N. Knudsen, and L. Gruener-Nielsen, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 36–43.

Lee, H.

C.-J. Chen, H. Lee, and Y.-J. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), TuC2.

Lewis, S. A. E.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 35, 923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD17-1.

Povlsen, J. H.

Y. Qian, J. H. Povlsen, S. N. Knudsen, and L. Gruener-Nielsen, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 36–43.

Qian, Y.

Y. Qian, J. H. Povlsen, S. N. Knudsen, and L. Gruener-Nielsen, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 36–43.

Shalaby, H. H. M.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD17-1.

Shum, P.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD17-1.

Taylor, J. R.

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 35, 923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W. S.

C.-J. Chen and W. S. Wong, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), OMC2-1.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD17-1.

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, and J. R. Taylor, Electron. Lett. 35, 923 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Y. Qian, J. H. Povlsen, S. N. Knudsen, and L. Gruener-Nielsen, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 44 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp. 36–43.

C.-J. Chen and W. S. Wong, in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, Vol. 60 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), OMC2-1.

X. Zhou, H. H. M. Shalaby, C. Lu, P. Shum, and T. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 54 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), WDD17-1.

C.-J. Chen, H. Lee, and Y.-J. Cheng, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), Vol. 86 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2003), TuC2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

GC DRA: C, circulator; R, Raman laser; A, attenuator; ISO, isolator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gain and noise figure (NF) versus signal input power for various degrees of gain clamping. The signal is at 1449.97 nm, the pump at 1365 nm, and the clamping wavelength at 1460 nm (pump power of 1.2 W).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Gain and noise figure of a WDM system versus input signal power for (a) conventional DRA and (b) GC DRA (pump power of 1.43 W).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transient effects in DRA and GC DRA under similar operating conditions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

GC lasing signal versus total signal input power for GC DRA.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gain and noise figure of a WDM system of gain-flattened GC DRA.

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