Abstract

We propose and analyze a new photonic crystal cavity design that supports a dipole mode with a quality factor greater than 20,000. Such a high quality factor is obtained by precise tuning of the cavity length with minimal disruption of the surrounding photonic crystal. A fabrication procedure based on dry etching of InGaAsP material in HI/H2/Ar is used to demonstrate photonic crystal lasers with smooth and straight sidewalls. These room-temperature lasers concentrate optical energy in air and are suitable for use as tunable lasers and chemical sensors.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Vuc̆ković, M. Lonc̆ar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, Phys. Rev. E 65, 016608 (2002).
  2. J. Vuc̆ković and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2374 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Park, J. Hwang, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3883 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Park, J. Hwang, J. Huh, H, Ryu, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Yoshie, O. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. Deppe, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 38, 967 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Yoshie, J. Vuc̆ković, A. Scherer, H. Chen, and D. Deppe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Lonc̆ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 648 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Painter, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, K. Okamoto, Y. Qiu, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, “Planar photonic crystal nanolasers: (I) porous cavity lasers,” IEICE Trans. E (to be published).
  12. O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, A. Katz, F. Ren, and T. R. Fullowan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 838 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2003

J. Vuc̆ković and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Yoshie, O. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. Deppe, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 38, 967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Park, J. Hwang, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vuc̆ković, M. Lonc̆ar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, Phys. Rev. E 65, 016608 (2002).

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Park, J. Hwang, J. Huh, H, Ryu, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, J. Vuc̆ković, A. Scherer, H. Chen, and D. Deppe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

O. Painter, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, A. Katz, F. Ren, and T. R. Fullowan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 838 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P. E.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, U. K.

S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, A. Katz, F. Ren, and T. R. Fullowan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 838 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

T. Yoshie, O. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. Deppe, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 38, 967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, J. Vuc̆ković, A. Scherer, H. Chen, and D. Deppe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P.

O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deppe, D.

T. Yoshie, O. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. Deppe, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 38, 967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, J. Vuc̆ković, A. Scherer, H. Chen, and D. Deppe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fullowan, T. R.

S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, A. Katz, F. Ren, and T. R. Fullowan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 838 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gogna, P.

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.

H. Park, J. Hwang, J. Huh, H, Ryu, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

H. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Park, J. Hwang, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, J. Hwang, J. Huh, H, Ryu, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katz, A.

S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, A. Katz, F. Ren, and T. R. Fullowan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 838 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

H. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Park, J. Hwang, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, J. Hwang, J. Huh, H, Ryu, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

H. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Park, J. Hwang, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R.

O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

H. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Park, J. Hwang, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, J. Hwang, J. Huh, H, Ryu, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lonc?ar, M.

M. Lonc̆ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vuc̆ković, M. Lonc̆ar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, Phys. Rev. E 65, 016608 (2002).

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, K. Okamoto, Y. Qiu, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, “Planar photonic crystal nanolasers: (I) porous cavity lasers,” IEICE Trans. E (to be published).

Mabuchi, H.

J. Vuc̆ković, M. Lonc̆ar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, Phys. Rev. E 65, 016608 (2002).

O'Brien, J.

O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, K. Okamoto, Y. Qiu, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, “Planar photonic crystal nanolasers: (I) porous cavity lasers,” IEICE Trans. E (to be published).

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Painter, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

H. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Park, J. Hwang, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, J. Hwang, J. Huh, H, Ryu, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, A. Katz, F. Ren, and T. R. Fullowan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 838 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

M. Lonc̆ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, K. Okamoto, Y. Qiu, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, “Planar photonic crystal nanolasers: (I) porous cavity lasers,” IEICE Trans. E (to be published).

Ren, F.

S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, A. Katz, F. Ren, and T. R. Fullowan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 838 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H,

H. Park, J. Hwang, J. Huh, H, Ryu, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.

H. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Park, J. Hwang, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

M. Lonc̆ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, O. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. Deppe, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 38, 967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vuc̆ković, M. Lonc̆ar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, Phys. Rev. E 65, 016608 (2002).

T. Yoshie, J. Vuc̆ković, A. Scherer, H. Chen, and D. Deppe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Painter, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, K. Okamoto, Y. Qiu, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, “Planar photonic crystal nanolasers: (I) porous cavity lasers,” IEICE Trans. E (to be published).

Shchekin, O.

T. Yoshie, O. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. Deppe, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 38, 967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vuc?kovic, J.

J. Vuc̆ković and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vuc̆ković, M. Lonc̆ar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, Phys. Rev. E 65, 016608 (2002).

T. Yoshie, J. Vuc̆ković, A. Scherer, H. Chen, and D. Deppe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, K. Okamoto, Y. Qiu, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, “Planar photonic crystal nanolasers: (I) porous cavity lasers,” IEICE Trans. E (to be published).

Yamamoto, Y.

J. Vuc̆ković and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, O. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. Deppe, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 38, 967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, J. Vuc̆ković, A. Scherer, H. Chen, and D. Deppe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, K. Okamoto, Y. Qiu, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, “Planar photonic crystal nanolasers: (I) porous cavity lasers,” IEICE Trans. E (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Vuc̆ković and Y. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2374 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ryu, S. Kim, H. Park, J. Hwang, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, J. Hwang, J. Huh, H, Ryu, Y. Lee, and J. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3032 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan, P. E. Barclay, O. Painter, J. Chen, A. Y. Cho, and C. Gmachl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, J. Vuc̆ković, A. Scherer, H. Chen, and D. Deppe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lonc̆ar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Pearton, U. K. Chakrabarti, A. Katz, F. Ren, and T. R. Fullowan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 838 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Yoshie, O. Shchekin, H. Chen, D. Deppe, and A. Scherer, Electron. Lett. 38, 967 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. E

M. Lonc̆ar, T. Yoshie, K. Okamoto, Y. Qiu, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, “Planar photonic crystal nanolasers: (I) porous cavity lasers,” IEICE Trans. E (to be published).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

O. Painter, J. Vuc̆ković, and A. Scherer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

J. Vuc̆ković, M. Lonc̆ar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, Phys. Rev. E 65, 016608 (2002).

Science

O. Painter, R. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. O'Brien, P. Dapkus, and I. Kim, Science 284, 1819 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cavity design and electric field distribution of the high-Q-factor y dipole mode supported in the cavity. (b) Scanning electron microscopy picture of the fabricated cavity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Dependence of the vertical Q factor on elipticity of two modified holes (Δ/a). (b) Dependence of the vertical (Qvrt), lateral (Qlat), and total (Qtot), quality factors on the number of photonic crystal layers surrounding the cavity. 1/Qtot=1/Qvrt+1/Qlat. Cavity with Δ/a=40%, immersed in air (gray) and liquid with n=1.4 (black) is analyzed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Alternative cavity design that supports high-Q x dipole modes. (b) Scanning electron microscope picture of the cavity based on FEDs. w is the cavity length.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Cross section of one hole after ICP RIE. (b) 20° view of the final undercut structure. (c) Spectrum of the laser taken at two different pumping levels. (d) Input power (L–L) curve.

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