Abstract

We have developed a miniature scanning confocal microscope that uses electrostatically actuated microlenses for focusing and scanning. Objective lenses, scanners, a pupil, and a pinhole of the confocal microscope are microfabricated and integrated into a volume smaller than 2 mm3 by stacking these components. Objective lenses are composed of two vertically cascaded polymer microlenses integrated into micromachined comb actuators. Raster scanning is implemented by electrostatically actuating each microlens in orthogonal directions. We have demonstrated reflection confocal imaging with 3-µm transverse resolution over a 100-µm field of view and a 0.38-mm working distance at λ=633 nm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, Opt. Lett. 21, 764 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Piyawattanametha, P. R. Patterson, G. D. J. Su, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators (Springer-Verlag, Germany, 2001), p. 590.
  3. S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Stacked 2D microlens scanners,” submitted to J. Microelect. Syst.
  4. H. Toshiyoshi, G. J. Su, J. LaCosse, and M. C. Wu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1700 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Decai, Y. Ching, and M. Rosa, in IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio), p. 259.
  6. C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000), p. 465.

2003

1996

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, Opt. Lett. 21, 764 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ching, Y.

S. Decai, Y. Ching, and M. Rosa, in IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio), p. 259.

Decai, S.

S. Decai, Y. Ching, and M. Rosa, in IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio), p. 259.

Dickensheets, D. L.

King, C. R.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

Kwon, S.

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Stacked 2D microlens scanners,” submitted to J. Microelect. Syst.

LaCosse, J.

Lee, L. P.

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Stacked 2D microlens scanners,” submitted to J. Microelect. Syst.

Lin, L. Y.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, P. R.

W. Piyawattanametha, P. R. Patterson, G. D. J. Su, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators (Springer-Verlag, Germany, 2001), p. 590.

Piyawattanametha, W.

W. Piyawattanametha, P. R. Patterson, G. D. J. Su, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators (Springer-Verlag, Germany, 2001), p. 590.

Rosa, M.

S. Decai, Y. Ching, and M. Rosa, in IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio), p. 259.

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000), p. 465.

Su, G. D. J.

W. Piyawattanametha, P. R. Patterson, G. D. J. Su, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators (Springer-Verlag, Germany, 2001), p. 590.

Su, G. J.

Toshiyoshi, H.

H. Toshiyoshi, G. J. Su, J. LaCosse, and M. C. Wu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Piyawattanametha, P. R. Patterson, G. D. J. Su, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators (Springer-Verlag, Germany, 2001), p. 590.

Wu, M. C.

H. Toshiyoshi, G. J. Su, J. LaCosse, and M. C. Wu, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1700 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Piyawattanametha, P. R. Patterson, G. D. J. Su, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators (Springer-Verlag, Germany, 2001), p. 590.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. R. King, L. Y. Lin, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1349 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Lett.

Other

W. Piyawattanametha, P. R. Patterson, G. D. J. Su, H. Toshiyoshi, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators (Springer-Verlag, Germany, 2001), p. 590.

S. Kwon and L. P. Lee, “Stacked 2D microlens scanners,” submitted to J. Microelect. Syst.

S. Decai, Y. Ching, and M. Rosa, in IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator and Microsystems Workshop (Transducers Research Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio), p. 259.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2000), p. 465.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Side view of the device architecture of the micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope. An objective lens, scanners, pupils, and pinholes are vertically integrated. (b) Schematic diagram of transmissive raster scanning.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrograph of the stacked microlens scanners. Two microlens scanners are orthogonally aligned and vertically stacked.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental x-direction edge response (solid curve) and the corresponding theoretical line-spread function (dashed curve). (b) Measured axial response.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Snapshot of the aluminum test pattern on a glass substrate and the line-scanning pattern generated by the micromachined transmissive scanning confocal microscope. (b) Reconstructed image of the test pattern. The field of view is 100 µm by 50 µm.

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