Abstract

We have developed a miniature scanning confocal microscope that uses electrostatically actuated microlenses for focusing and scanning. Objective lenses, scanners, a pupil, and a pinhole of the confocal microscope are microfabricated and integrated into a volume smaller than 2 mm3 by stacking these components. Objective lenses are composed of two vertically cascaded polymer microlenses integrated into micromachined comb actuators. Raster scanning is implemented by electrostatically actuating each microlens in orthogonal directions. We have demonstrated reflection confocal imaging with 3-µm transverse resolution over a 100-µm field of view and a 0.38-mm working distance at λ=633 nm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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