Abstract

The cross-correlation single-shot sonogram technique offers exact pulse measurement and real-time pulse monitoring via an intuitive time–frequency trace whose shape and orientation directly indicate the spectral chirp of an ultrashort laser pulse. We demonstrate an algorithm that solves a fundamental limitation of the cross-correlation sonogram method, namely, that the time-gating operation is implemented using a replica of the measured pulse rather than the ideal delta-function-like pulse. Using a modified principal-components generalized projections algorithm, we experimentally show accurate pulse retrieval of an asymmetric double pulse, a case that is prone to systematic error when one is using the original sonogram retrieval algorithm.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2002

2001

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, and D. T. Reid, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, R. Ortega-Martinez, and D. T. Reid, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi and K. Taira, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Taira and K. Kikuchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. T. Reid, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 36, 1141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. T. Reid, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. J. Kane, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 944 (1998).

1997

1985

1971

E. B. Treacy, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cormack, I. G.

Deighton, H. V.

Dudley, J. M.

D. T. Reid, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 36, 1141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiddy, M. A.

Harvey, J. D.

D. T. Reid, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 36, 1141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 944 (1998).

Kikuchi, K.

K. Taira and K. Kikuchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi and K. Taira, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ortega-Martinez, R.

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, R. Ortega-Martinez, and D. T. Reid, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

D. T. Reid and I. G. Cormack, Opt. Lett. 27, 658 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, R. Ortega-Martinez, and D. T. Reid, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, and D. T. Reid, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 36, 1141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Reid, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scivier, M. S.

Sibbett, W.

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, R. Ortega-Martinez, and D. T. Reid, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, and D. T. Reid, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 1377 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

K. Kikuchi and K. Taira, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Taira and K. Kikuchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, B. C.

D. T. Reid, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 36, 1141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wong, V.

Electron. Lett.

D. T. Reid, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, Electron. Lett. 36, 1141 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. T. Reid, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi and K. Taira, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 533 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. J. Kane, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 944 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Taira and K. Kikuchi, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 505 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

E. B. Treacy, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 3848 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

I. G. Cormack, W. Sibbett, R. Ortega-Martinez, and D. T. Reid, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 4071 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modified CCS phase-retrieval algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated CCS used as input data for the new algorithm. (b) True sonogram of the input pulses generated using Eq. (1). (c) Sonogram retrieved with the new algorithm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse temporal (top) and spectral (bottom) profiles: (a) pulses used as the test data and also correctly retrieved by the new sonogram retrieval algorithm (the test data and retrieved data are identical), (b) pulses incorrectly retrieved with the original sonogram retrieval algorithm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured CCS trace, (b) retrieved sonogram trace, (c) CCS trace calculated from the retrieved pulse data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Retrieved double pulse showing the difference in the pulse intensities, (b) retrieved pulse spectrum (symbols and dotted curve) with the independently measured spectrum (solid curve), (c) retrieved spectral filter.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Isonot,Ω=-EωGω-Ωexpiωtdω2,
IX-sonot,Ω=ItIsonot,Ω.

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