Abstract

We introduce an enhanced method for the characterization of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectra in single-mode fiber that is based on optical single-sideband modulation. This novel technique is shown to provide high-resolution characterization of SBS even under saturation operation in a simple and stable setup in which the spectrum is translated from the optical to the electrical domain, sweeping the frequency of an electrical signal generator. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the performance of the system in measuring the detailed structure of acoustic modes in three types of single-mode fiber.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. X. P. Mao, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 66 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, Opt. Lett. 25, 197 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, Opt. Lett. 25, 1234 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Bernini, L. Crocco, A. Minardo, F. Soldovieri, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sensors J. 3, 36 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Oh, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 358 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Shibata, Y. Azuma, T. Horiguchi, and M. Tateda, Opt. Lett. 13, 595 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, Electron. Lett. 37, 367 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 143 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Román, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, Opt. Lett. 23, 939 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Botineau, E. Picholle, and D. Bahloul, Electron. Lett. 31, 2032 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1071 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

R. Bernini, L. Crocco, A. Minardo, F. Soldovieri, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sensors J. 3, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

I. Oh, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, Electron. Lett. 37, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Botineau, E. Picholle, and D. Bahloul, Electron. Lett. 31, 2032 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

X. P. Mao, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Ahmed, Z.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Azuma, Y.

Bahloul, D.

J. Botineau, E. Picholle, and D. Bahloul, Electron. Lett. 31, 2032 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Benito, D.

Bernini, R.

R. Bernini, L. Crocco, A. Minardo, F. Soldovieri, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sensors J. 3, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Botineau, J.

J. Botineau, E. Picholle, and D. Bahloul, Electron. Lett. 31, 2032 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

X. P. Mao, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crocco, L.

R. Bernini, L. Crocco, A. Minardo, F. Soldovieri, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sensors J. 3, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

Frankel, M. Y.

Garde, M. J.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, Electron. Lett. 37, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, Opt. Lett. 25, 1234 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, Opt. Lett. 25, 197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, T.

Jalali, B.

I. Oh, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C.

Loayssa, A.

Mao, X. P.

X. P. Mao, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Minardo, A.

R. Bernini, L. Crocco, A. Minardo, F. Soldovieri, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sensors J. 3, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niklès, M.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

Novak, D.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh, I.

I. Oh, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Picholle, E.

J. Botineau, E. Picholle, and D. Bahloul, Electron. Lett. 31, 2032 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robert, P. A.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Román, J. E.

Shibata, N.

Smith, G. H.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soldovieri, F.

R. Bernini, L. Crocco, A. Minardo, F. Soldovieri, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sensors J. 3, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

Thévenaz, L.

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

X. P. Mao, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

I. Oh, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

R. Bernini, L. Crocco, A. Minardo, F. Soldovieri, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sensors J. 3, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, Electron. Lett. 37, 367 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Botineau, E. Picholle, and D. Bahloul, Electron. Lett. 31, 2032 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 148, 143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. P. Mao, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. Oh, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

R. Bernini, L. Crocco, A. Minardo, F. Soldovieri, and L. Zeni, IEEE Sensors J. 3, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: PC, polarization controller; ECL, external-cavity laser diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement fundamentals: vB; Brillouin frequency shift.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characterization of the SBS spectrum in a 6.4-km Corning SMF-28 fiber reel. Sideband optical power (Stokes wave), 11 nW; unmodulated carrier powers (pump wave) for increasing gains, 1.9, 4.7, and 7.1 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of the SBS spectrum in a 5.5-km reel of dispersion-shifted single-mode fiber. Sideband optical power (Stokes wave), 11 nW; unmodulated carrier powers (pump wave) for increasing gains, 4, 7.7, and 15.8 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Characterization of the SBS spectrum in a 25-km reel of standard single-mode fiber. Sideband optical power (Stokes wave), 10 nW; unmodulated carrier powers (pump wave) for increasing gains, 2.9, 4.4, and 6.7 mW.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eint=A0 expj2πv0t+A-1 expj2πv0-frft,
Eoutt=A0Hv0expj argHv0expj2πv0t+A-1Hv0-frfexpj argHv0-frf×expj2πv0-frft.
iouttf=frfA0A-1Hv0Hv0-frf×cos2πfrft+φ0-φ-1+argHv0-argHv0-frf.
HMfrf=HBGS*v0-frf,

Metrics