Abstract

We examine the effects of detector size on the imaging properties of a scanning phase contrast microscope. The lateral size of the point-spread function is found to be wider when a point detector is used than when a much larger detector is used. Combining this finding with the well-known difficulties involved in using a confocal microscope in transmission mode suggests that a phase contrast microscope employing a point detector will in general have inferior imaging properties compared with one employing a large detector.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 19 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, in Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy, 1st ed. (Academic, London, 1984).
  3. P. Török, P. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. R. Carlini and T. Wilson, Proc. SPIE 809, 97 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 633–656.
  7. G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, and J. L. Oud, in Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990), Chap. 6.
  8. P. Török, Opt. Commun. 181, 7 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. N. B. E. Sawyer, S. P. Morgan, M. G. Somekh, and C. W. See, Appl. Opt. 42, 4488 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London 253, 358 (1959).
    [Crossref]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

P. Török, Opt. Commun. 181, 7 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. Török, P. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

A. R. Carlini and T. Wilson, Proc. SPIE 809, 97 (1987).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

C. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 19 (1977).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London 253, 358 (1959).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 633–656.

Brakenhoff, G. J.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, and J. L. Oud, in Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990), Chap. 6.

Carlini, A. R.

A. R. Carlini and T. Wilson, Proc. SPIE 809, 97 (1987).
[Crossref]

Choudhury, A.

C. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 19 (1977).
[Crossref]

Higdon, P.

P. Török, P. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[Crossref]

Morgan, S. P.

Oud, J. L.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, and J. L. Oud, in Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990), Chap. 6.

Richards, B.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London 253, 358 (1959).
[Crossref]

Sawyer, N. B. E.

See, C. W.

Sheppard, C.

C. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 19 (1977).
[Crossref]

T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, in Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy, 1st ed. (Academic, London, 1984).

Somekh, M. G.

Török, P.

P. Török, Opt. Commun. 181, 7 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. Török, P. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[Crossref]

van der Voort, H. T. M.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, and J. L. Oud, in Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990), Chap. 6.

Wilson, T.

P. Török, P. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. R. Carlini and T. Wilson, Proc. SPIE 809, 97 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, in Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy, 1st ed. (Academic, London, 1984).

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London 253, 358 (1959).
[Crossref]

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 633–656.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. Török, P. Higdon, and T. Wilson, J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1681 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (1)

C. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 19 (1977).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Török, Opt. Commun. 181, 7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

B. Richards and E. Wolf, Proc. R. Soc. London 253, 358 (1959).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. R. Carlini and T. Wilson, Proc. SPIE 809, 97 (1987).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

F. Zernike, Science 121, 345 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. Born and E. Wolf, in Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), pp. 633–656.

G. J. Brakenhoff, H. T. M. van der Voort, and J. L. Oud, in Confocal Microscopy (Academic, London, 1990), Chap. 6.

T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, in Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy, 1st ed. (Academic, London, 1984).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Architecture of a scanning phase contrast microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of a small weak phase object for a point detector and an infinitely large detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detector signal and its constituent components for a small weak phase object scanning along the x axis.

Equations (2)

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Eillrs=-if2λsx2+sy21Msx,syEsx,sysz×exp-iks·rsdsxdsy,
Id=DEs+Ed2dS=DEs2+Ed2+2Es*·EddS=Is+Id+Ii,

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