Abstract

An integrated endoscopy system for simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy was developed to facilitate more accurate and convenient detection of early lung cancers. A specially designed three-CCD camera in combination with a dedicated light source permits capture of both white-light color images and tissue autofluorescence images without the need to switch between two different cameras. A mirror with an optical fiber at its center, placed at an interim imaging plane inside the camera unit, facilitates simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy measurements in either white-light reflectance mode or fluorescence mode. The system has been successfully tested in a clinic, demonstrating a practical approach to improve both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity at the same time.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Zeng, A. Weiss, R. Cline, and C. MacAulay, Bioimaging 6, 151 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zeng, A. Weiss, R. Cline, and C. MacAulay, Bioimaging 6, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cline, R.

H. Zeng, A. Weiss, R. Cline, and C. MacAulay, Bioimaging 6, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coldman, A.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gazder, A. F.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelmont, D.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gipe, B.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, D.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, J.

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, T.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99 (1991).
[CrossRef]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LeRiche, J. C.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99 (1991).
[CrossRef]

MacAulay, C.

H. Zeng, A. Weiss, R. Cline, and C. MacAulay, Bioimaging 6, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, Y. E.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palcic, B.

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rusch, V.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unger, M.

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, A.

H. Zeng, A. Weiss, R. Cline, and C. MacAulay, Bioimaging 6, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

H. Zeng, A. Weiss, R. Cline, and C. MacAulay, Bioimaging 6, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bioimaging

H. Zeng, A. Weiss, R. Cline, and C. MacAulay, Bioimaging 6, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chest

S. Lam, T. Kennedy, M. Unger, Y. E. Miller, D. Gelmont, V. Rusch, B. Gipe, D. Howard, J. C. LeRiche, A. Coldman, and A. F. Gazder, Chest 113, 696 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, and C. MacAulay, Chest 99, 742 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

J. Hung, S. Lam, J. C. LeRiche, and B. Palcic, Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 99 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout of the three-CCD camera for both WLR and FL imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Convolution processes for realizing both (a)–(c) WLR imaging and (d)–(f) FL imaging with the camera in Fig. 1. Curves 1–3 are schematic representations only, are not real data, and are not to scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of the spectral attachment. The front and side views of the fiber–mirror assembly, a key component of the attachment, are also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example WLR images of (a)–(c) reflectance spectral curves and (d)–(f) FL images and spectral curves of a CIS lesion and its surrounding normal tissue.

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