Abstract

We have developed and characterized a pair of Doppler-free acetylene-stabilized diode laser frequency standards as optical communications references. The Allan deviation σ/f of an individual system reaches a minimum of 4×10-14 at a sampling time of 5000 s, and the long-term lock-point repeatability is found to be 0.4 kHz (one standard uncertainty), corresponding to a fractional uncertainty of 2×10-12. Using a combination of a frequency chain and a self-referenced femtosecond comb, we have measured the frequency of line P16 of the ν1+ν3 overtone band of C132H2 to be 194 369 569 385.9 (3.0) kHz. The uncertainty of this number is limited solely by the reproducibility of the standards.

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References

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[CrossRef]

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Thomann, A. Bartels, K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, L. Hollberg, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, Opt. Lett. 28, 1368 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, P. Dubé, K. J. Siemsen, and J. E. Bernard, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 279–280.
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 281–282.
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Kurosu and U. Sterr, Proc. SPIE 4269, 248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1263 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

1983

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1975

BS 2846:Part 1:1975 (British Standards Institution, London, 1975), p. 15.

Awaji, Y.

Bartels, A.

Barwood, G. P.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 281–282.
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J. E.

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, P. Dubé, K. J. Siemsen, and J. E. Bernard, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 279–280.
[CrossRef]

Chartier, J.-M.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

Czajkowski, A.

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, P. Dubé, K. J. Siemsen, and J. E. Bernard, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 279–280.
[CrossRef]

de Labachelerie, M.

Diddams, S. A.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dubé, P.

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, P. Dubé, K. J. Siemsen, and J. E. Bernard, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 279–280.
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. S.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 281–282.
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

Gill, P.

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 281–282.
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Harada, S.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Hong, F.-L.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ikegami, T.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klein, H. A.

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kourougi, M.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kurosu, T.

T. Kurosu and U. Sterr, Proc. SPIE 4269, 248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lea, S. N.

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Madej, A. A.

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, P. Dubé, K. J. Siemsen, and J. E. Bernard, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 279–280.
[CrossRef]

Margolis, H. S.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakagawa, M. de Labachelerie, Y. Awaji, and M. Kourougi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2708 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. de Labachelerie, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 19, 840 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Ohtsu, M.

Okumura, K.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 281–282.
[CrossRef]

Siemsen, K. J.

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, P. Dubé, K. J. Siemsen, and J. E. Bernard, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 279–280.
[CrossRef]

Sterr, U.

T. Kurosu and U. Sterr, Proc. SPIE 4269, 248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, K.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

Thomann, I.

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Widiyatomoko, B.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, A.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M. F.

Yoda, J.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, J. Yoda, K. Nakagawa, A. Yamaguchi, M. Kourogi, K. Imai, and B. Widiyatomoko, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Metrologia

S. N. Lea, W. R. C. Rowley, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, G. Huang, P. Gill, J.-M. Chartier, and R. S. Windeler, Metrologia 40, 84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, Metrologia 40, 103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, Opt. Commun. 183, 181 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

H. S. Margolis, G. Huang, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, H. A. Klein, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, and R. S. Windeler, Phys. Rev. A 67, 032501 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. Kurosu and U. Sterr, Proc. SPIE 4269, 248 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, P. Dubé, K. J. Siemsen, and J. E. Bernard, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 279–280.
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, in 15th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2002), pp. 281–282.
[CrossRef]

BS 2846:Part 1:1975 (British Standards Institution, London, 1975), p. 15.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of acetylene-stabilized diode laser: FR, Faraday rotator; D, detector; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; EOM, electro-optic modulator; PSD, phase-sensitive detector; DBM, double-balanced mixer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Allan deviation for an acetylene-stabilized frequency standard.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simplified schematic of the absolute frequency measurement setup: PPLN, periodically poled lithium niobate; SH, second harmonic; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absolute P16 frequency measurements: circles, data from August 28, 2003; squares, data from August 29, 2003; triangles, data from September 1, 2003.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainty Analysis of the Absolute Frequency Measurement

Metrics