Abstract

We describe the dopant dependence of Raman gain in germanium- and fluorine-doped optical fibers. We clarify, both theoretically and experimentally, the effective Raman gain characteristic in an optical fiber, which is closely related to the fiber’s refractive-index profile and electromagnetic field profile. We also show that this experimentally determined relationship can be used to evaluate the effective Raman gain characteristic in a germaninum- or a fluorine-doped optical fiber with an arbitrary index profile.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Namiki and Y. Emori, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. H. Stolen, Proc. IEEE 68, 1232 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Nakashima, S. Seikai, and M. Nakazawa, Opt. Lett. 10, 420 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 24 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Ohashi, K. Sato, and Y. Katasuyama, Electron. Lett. 28, 6 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Marcuse, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 103 (1978).
  9. S. Gray, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 2000).

2002 (1)

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Ohashi, K. Sato, and Y. Katasuyama, Electron. Lett. 28, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1981 (1)

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. H. Stolen, Proc. IEEE 68, 1232 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Bromage, J.

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeMarco, J. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, K. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edahiro, T.

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Emori, Y.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eskildsen, L.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S.

S. Gray, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 2000).

Grubb, S. G.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. B.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, M.

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Katasuyama, Y.

M. Ohashi, K. Sato, and Y. Katasuyama, Electron. Lett. 28, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lines, M. E.

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

Nakashima, T.

Nakazawa, M.

Namiki, S.

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, M.

M. Ohashi, K. Sato, and Y. Katasuyama, Electron. Lett. 28, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pedrazzani, R.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rottwitt, K.

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

M. Ohashi, K. Sato, and Y. Katasuyama, Electron. Lett. 28, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seikai, S.

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A. J.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, Proc. IEEE 68, 1232 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Ohashi, K. Sato, and Y. Katasuyama, Electron. Lett. 28, 6 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Namiki and Y. Emori, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, S. G. Grubb, A. J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, and K. J. DiGiovanni, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Bromage, K. Rottwitt, and M. E. Lines, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. H. Stolen, Proc. IEEE 68, 1232 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Gray, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colo., 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relationship between relative index difference and Raman gain coefficient in Ge- and F-doped optical fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relationship between measured and calculated effective Raman gain efficiency in various optical fibers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and predicted results for the effective Raman gain efficiency spectra in SCF, SMF, and DSF.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CReffFgReffFAeffλs=0gRr,FE4r,λsrdr2π0E2r,λsrdr2,
CReffF1πWλs2gRcoreF-gRcoreF-gRcladFexp-4a2Wλs2,
Gedoped fiber gRcore 12.9 THz2.75×10-14+2.16×10-14Δ, Fdoped fiber gRcore 12.9 THz2.75×10-14-0.32×10-14Δ.
CReffFim=k=1nC1ikCReffFkm,

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