Abstract

We demonstrate nonlinearly induced nonreciprocity of counterpropagating waves in a monolithically integrated Sagnac interferometer that employs a semiconductor optical amplifier as the nonlinear element. We show that the dependence of the linewidth enhancement factor on charge injection can influence the third-order nonlinearity in the semiconductor gain medium to a surprisingly large degree. This effect is utilized to control the phases of the counterpropagating signals in the interferometer. A theoretical model is used to explain the experimental observations. We show that these effects have significant practical implications by demonstrating an all-optical controlled-not gate.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. G. Sagnac, C. R. Acad. Sci. 157, 708 (1913).
  2. A. E. Kaplan and P. Meystre, Opt. Lett. 6, 590 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. J. Doran and D. Wood, Opt. Lett. 13, 56 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Storkfelt, M. Yamaguchi, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1774 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Ehrhardt, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, H. Nakajima, J. Landreau, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1335 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelly, and E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2003 (1)

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

N. Storkfelt, M. Yamaguchi, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1774 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Ehrhardt, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, H. Nakajima, J. Landreau, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1335 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1966 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelly, and E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
[Crossref]

1913 (1)

M. G. Sagnac, C. R. Acad. Sci. 157, 708 (1913).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelly, and E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
[Crossref]

Davis, J. L.

Doran, N. J.

Ehrhardt, J.

J. Ehrhardt, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, H. Nakajima, J. Landreau, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1335 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ezekiel, S.

Forrest, S. R.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
[Crossref]

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelly, and E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
[Crossref]

Glesk, I.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gokhale, M. R.

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hellwarth, R. W.

Kane, M.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, A. E.

Kelly, P. L.

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelly, and E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
[Crossref]

Landreau, J.

J. Ehrhardt, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, H. Nakajima, J. Landreau, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1335 (1992).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
[Crossref]

Menon, V. M.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meystre, P.

Mikkelsen, B.

N. Storkfelt, M. Yamaguchi, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1774 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, H.

J. Ehrhardt, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, H. Nakajima, J. Landreau, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1335 (1992).
[Crossref]

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297 (1989).
[Crossref]

Otsuka, K.

Ougazzaden, A.

J. Ehrhardt, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, H. Nakajima, J. Landreau, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1335 (1992).
[Crossref]

Prucnal, P. R.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sagnac, M. G.

M. G. Sagnac, C. R. Acad. Sci. 157, 708 (1913).

Sokoloff, J. P.

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. Ehrhardt, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, H. Nakajima, J. Landreau, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1335 (1992).
[Crossref]

Storkfelt, N.

N. Storkfelt, M. Yamaguchi, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1774 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stubkjaer, K. E.

N. Storkfelt, M. Yamaguchi, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1774 (1992).
[Crossref]

Studenkov, P. V.

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tong, W.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, A.

J. Ehrhardt, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, H. Nakajima, J. Landreau, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1335 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wood, D.

Xia, F.

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Storkfelt, M. Yamaguchi, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1774 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (1)

M. G. Sagnac, C. R. Acad. Sci. 157, 708 (1913).

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Storkfelt, M. Yamaguchi, B. Mikkelsen, and K. E. Stubkjaer, Electron. Lett. 28, 1774 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1096 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, C. Li, F. Xia, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, and S. R. Forrest, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 254 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Ehrhardt, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, H. Nakajima, J. Landreau, and A. Ougazzaden, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1335 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. P. Sokoloff, P. R. Prucnal, I. Glesk, and M. Kane, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 787 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Y. Chiao, P. L. Kelly, and E. Garmire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 17, 1158 (1966).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the integrated Sagnac interferometer showing the electric fields at various locations in the loop.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission at port 2 versus SOA current for an optical input power level of 1 mW at a wavelength of 1525 nm. Solid curve, theoretical fit if the linewidth enhancement factor is assumed to vary from 7.5 to 20 in this current range. Inset, variation of linewidth enhancement factor α and differential gain dg/dN with current injection used in the fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Transmission at port 2 versus optical input power at a SOA current of 110 mA and wavelength λ=1525 nm. Solid curve, theoretical fit; linewidth enhancement factor, α=12.5. (b) Transmission at ports 1 and 2 measured simultaneously at an optical input power of 7 mW and wavelength of 1525 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

All-optical switching characteristics of the Sagnac interferometer used as an optically controlled not gate.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n2=αγτcκλ24πhcLSOA,
ΔnCWNL=n2ECW2+2ECCW2, ΔnCCWNL=n22ECW2+ECCW2,
ΦCWCCW=2πΔnCWCCWNLLSOAλAeff,
S=¼ECW2+ECCW2-2ECW×ECCWcosΦCW-ΦCCW.

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