Abstract

A planar nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cell is incorporated into a Littman-type external cavity as the wavelength-tuning device for a semiconductor laser diode. By varying the driving voltage of the NLC cell and laser diode bias current simultaneously, we demonstrate single-mode oscillation and mode-hop-free tuning over 19.2 GHz at 775 nm. The result is in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, T. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 98 (2002).
  2. C. Petridis, I. L. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Rev. 5, 267 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Chao, J. Wu, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Opt. Eng. 40, 801 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Levin, Opt. Lett. 27, 237 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Kourogi, K. Imai, B. Widyatmoko, T. Shimizu, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 25, 1165 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Wacogne, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. P. Onokhov, and M. Tomilin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1015 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Becker and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1266 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C.-L. Pan, S.-H. Tsai, R.-P. Pan, C.-R. Sheu, and S. C. Wang, Electron. Lett. 35, 1472 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Struckmeier, A. Euteneuer, B. Smarsly, M. Breede, M. Born, and M. Hofmann, Opt. Lett. 24, 1573 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. G. Littman and H. J. Metcalf, Appl. Opt. 17, 2224 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S.-T. Wu, M. Warenghem, and M. Ismailli, Opt. Eng. 32, 1775 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, T. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 98 (2002).

L. Levin, Opt. Lett. 27, 237 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Petridis, I. L. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chao, J. Wu, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Opt. Eng. 40, 801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

J. Struckmeier, A. Euteneuer, B. Smarsly, M. Breede, M. Born, and M. Hofmann, Opt. Lett. 24, 1573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Pan, S.-H. Tsai, R.-P. Pan, C.-R. Sheu, and S. C. Wang, Electron. Lett. 35, 1472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Rev. 5, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. C. Parker and R. J. Mears, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1007 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

S.-T. Wu, M. Warenghem, and M. Ismailli, Opt. Eng. 32, 1775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Wacogne, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. P. Onokhov, and M. Tomilin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Becker, H.

H. Becker and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

Breede, M.

Chao, Z.

Z. Chao, J. Wu, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Opt. Eng. 40, 801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

C. Petridis, I. L. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Euteneuer, A.

Friend, R. H.

H. Becker and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Rev. 5, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J. P.

B. Wacogne, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. P. Onokhov, and M. Tomilin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

Imai, K.

Ismailli, M.

S.-T. Wu, M. Warenghem, and M. Ismailli, Opt. Eng. 32, 1775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kameyama, H.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, T. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 98 (2002).

Kinugawa, S.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, T. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 98 (2002).

Kourogi, M.

M. Kourogi, K. Imai, B. Widyatmoko, T. Shimizu, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 25, 1165 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Rev. 5, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozuma, M.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Rev. 5, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levin, L.

Lindsay, I. L.

C. Petridis, I. L. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

Mattori, S.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, T. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 98 (2002).

Mears, R. J.

M. C. Parker and R. J. Mears, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1007 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H. J.

Nayuki, T.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Rev. 5, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Rev. 5, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

M. Kourogi, K. Imai, B. Widyatmoko, T. Shimizu, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Lett. 25, 1165 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Rev. 5, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Onokhov, A. P.

B. Wacogne, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. P. Onokhov, and M. Tomilin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, T.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, T. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 98 (2002).

Pan, C.-L.

C.-L. Pan, S.-H. Tsai, R.-P. Pan, C.-R. Sheu, and S. C. Wang, Electron. Lett. 35, 1472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R.-P.

C.-L. Pan, S.-H. Tsai, R.-P. Pan, C.-R. Sheu, and S. C. Wang, Electron. Lett. 35, 1472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parker, M. C.

M. C. Parker and R. J. Mears, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1007 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petridis, C.

C. Petridis, I. L. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, T.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, T. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 98 (2002).

Sheu, C.-R.

C.-L. Pan, S.-H. Tsai, R.-P. Pan, C.-R. Sheu, and S. C. Wang, Electron. Lett. 35, 1472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

Shirono, J.

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, T. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 98 (2002).

Smarsly, B.

Stothard, D. J. M.

C. Petridis, I. L. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Struckmeier, J.

Tomilin, M.

B. Wacogne, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. P. Onokhov, and M. Tomilin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S.-H.

C.-L. Pan, S.-H. Tsai, R.-P. Pan, C.-R. Sheu, and S. C. Wang, Electron. Lett. 35, 1472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wacogne, B.

B. Wacogne, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. P. Onokhov, and M. Tomilin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C.-L. Pan, S.-H. Tsai, R.-P. Pan, C.-R. Sheu, and S. C. Wang, Electron. Lett. 35, 1472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Warenghem, M.

S.-T. Wu, M. Warenghem, and M. Ismailli, Opt. Eng. 32, 1775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Widyatmoko, B.

Wu, J.

Z. Chao, J. Wu, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Opt. Eng. 40, 801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

S.-T. Wu, M. Warenghem, and M. Ismailli, Opt. Eng. 32, 1775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Z. Chao, J. Wu, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Opt. Eng. 40, 801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yin, C.

Z. Chao, J. Wu, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Opt. Eng. 40, 801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Becker and R. H. Friend, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C.-L. Pan, S.-H. Tsai, R.-P. Pan, C.-R. Sheu, and S. C. Wang, Electron. Lett. 35, 1472 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Wacogne, J. P. Goedgebuer, A. P. Onokhov, and M. Tomilin, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1015 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. C. Parker and R. J. Mears, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1007 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S. Mattori, T. Saitoh, S. Kinugawa, H. Kameyama, T. Ozaki, and J. Shirono, IEICE Trans. Electron. E85-C, 98 (2002).

Opt. Eng. (2)

Z. Chao, J. Wu, C. Yin, and Y. Xu, Opt. Eng. 40, 801 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Wu, M. Warenghem, and M. Ismailli, Opt. Eng. 32, 1775 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

T. Nayuki, T. Fujii, K. Nemoto, M. Kozuma, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, Opt. Rev. 5, 267 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Petridis, I. L. Lindsay, D. J. M. Stothard, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the laser: LD, laser diode; HR, high reflector; AR, antireflection coating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission of the NLC cell at λ=775 nm versus driving voltage. The solid and dotted curves are obtained by ramping the driving voltage up and down, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Frequency shift of the laser and (b) variation of the LD drive current as the driving voltage of the NLC cell is ramped up and down. The inset in (a) shows a typical laser spectrum. The solid curve in (a) is a theoretical curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference fringes of the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with a fixed optical path difference of 16 cm. The inset illustrates fringes from 0.7 to 2.0 V.

Equations (2)

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Δll=-Δff,
ΔILD=λΔl/βl.

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