Abstract

An ultrahigh-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system is presented that achieves acquisition rates of 29,300 depth profiles/s. The sensitivity of SD-OCT and time domain OCT (TD-OCT) are experimentally compared, demonstrating a 21.7-dB improvement of SD-OCT over TD-OCT. In vivo images of the human retina are presented, demonstrating the ability to acquire high-quality structural images with an axial resolution of 6 µm at ultrahigh speed and with an ocular exposure level of less than 600 µW.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 28, 2067 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Z136.1. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2000).
  9. W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 80, 894 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Tripathi, N. Nassif, J. S. Nelson, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Lett. 27, 406 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

R. Tripathi, N. Nassif, J. S. Nelson, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, Opt. Lett. 27, 406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 80, 894 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baney, D. M.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 28, 2067 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Findl, O.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. H.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, Opt. Express 11, 889 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 80, 894 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 28, 2067 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholda, C.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stur, M.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tripathi, R.

Unterhuber, A.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirtitsch, M.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 80, 894 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol.

W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, B. Hermann, T. H. Ko, M. Stur, A. Unterhuber, C. Scholda, O. Findl, M. Wirtitsch, J. G. Fujimoto, and A. F. Fercher, Arch. Ophthalmol. 121, 695 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. V. Sorin and D. M. Baney, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1404 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, Opt. Commun. 117, 43 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Phys. Soc. London

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 80, 894 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Z136.1. (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Fla., 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. HP-SLD, source; I, polarizer and isolator; 80/20, fiber-based 80/20 splitter; RSOD, rapid-scanning optical delay line; ND, neutral-density filter; SL, slit-lamp-based telecentric scanner; E, eye; TD, TD-OCT configuration; C, collimator; PD, photodiode; SD, SD-OCT configuration; TG, transmission grating; ASL, three-element air-spaced lens; LSC, line scan camera; PC, polarization controller. For SD-OCT measurements, the RSOD was not scanned and was used for dispersion compensation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of SNR in TD-OCT and SD-OCT for the same weak reflecting surface in the sample arm. Dotted curve, average of 256 depth profiles of the TD-OCT system. Solid curve, average of 256 depth profiles of the SD-OCT system. The large peak at zero in the SD-OCT profile is due to the DC term of the spectrum. The SD-OCT system has a 5.7-dB-higher SNR than the TD-OCT system, at a 40-fold-higher acquisition speed. The depth axis was scaled to reflect ranging assuming a medium with a refractive index of n=1.38.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo SD-OCT image of the human retina around the optic nerve head, consisting of 1000 depth profiles acquired in 34 ms. Dimensions are 6.4 mm wide×1.7 mm deep. Dynamic range within the image was 40 dB. The image shows features that can be identified as12 the nerve fiber layer (NFL), inner plexiform layer (IPL) inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), interface between the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors (OS), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). A blood vessel (indicated with an arrow) can be distinguished near the left side of the optic nerve head.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SSD=η2e2PrefPsampleτi2Ev2e2,
σnoise2=σr+d2+ηe2PrefτiEv+ηe2PrefEv2τiτcohe2,
SNRTD=ηPsampleEvBW,    SNRSD=ηPsampleτiEv,

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