Abstract

Side pumping of double-clad photonic crystal fibers is experimentally demonstrated. Optical access to the multimode cladding is obtained by collapsing the airholes over a short length of fiber while leaving the inner single-mode core undisturbed. Coupling efficiencies greater than 90% are obtained. A side-pumped Yb fiber laser with a slope efficiency of 81% is demonstrated with this method.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003

2002

2001

2000

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Opt. Lett. 25, 796 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, Electron. Lett. 36, 1452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

T. Weber, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 63, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. J. Ripin and L. Goldberg, Electron. Lett. 31, 2204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, Electron. Lett. 37, 1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, Electron. Lett. 36, 1452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Libori, J. Folkenberg, and G. Vienne, “Optical fibre with high numerical aperture, method of its production, and use thereof,” U.S. patent application 20,030,165,313 (March11, 2003).

Bouwmans, G.

Broeng, J.

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, Opt. Express 11, 818 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Libori, J. Folkenberg, and G. Vienne, “Optical fibre with high numerical aperture, method of its production, and use thereof,” U.S. patent application 20,030,165,313 (March11, 2003).

Doya, V.

Fischer, D.

Folkenberg, J.

J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Libori, J. Folkenberg, and G. Vienne, “Optical fibre with high numerical aperture, method of its production, and use thereof,” U.S. patent application 20,030,165,313 (March11, 2003).

Furusawa, K.

J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, Electron. Lett. 37, 1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 9, 714 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glas, P.

Goldberg, L.

D. J. Ripin and L. Goldberg, Electron. Lett. 31, 2204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, R. P. Tumminelli, and F. Hakimi, “Optical fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent4,815,079 (March21, 1989).

F. Hakimi and H. Hakimi, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 116.

Hakimi, H.

F. Hakimi and H. Hakimi, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 116.

Iliew, R.

Jakobsen, C.

Kliner, D. A.

J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. Kliner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Koplow, J. P.

J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. Kliner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G.

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, Opt. Commun. 220, 389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Legrand, O.

Libori, S.

J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Libori, J. Folkenberg, and G. Vienne, “Optical fibre with high numerical aperture, method of its production, and use thereof,” U.S. patent application 20,030,165,313 (March11, 2003).

Limpert, J.

Lu, J.

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, Opt. Commun. 220, 389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, Opt. Commun. 220, 389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lüthy, W.

T. Weber, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 63, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, A.

Monro, T. M.

Moore, S. W.

J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. Kliner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mortessagne, F.

Nilsson, J.

J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, Electron. Lett. 37, 1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 9, 714 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

Percival, R. M.

Petersson, A.

Po, H.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, R. P. Tumminelli, and F. Hakimi, “Optical fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent4,815,079 (March21, 1989).

Price, J. H. V.

Ranka, J. K.

Reeves, W. H.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, Electron. Lett. 36, 1452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, C. C.

J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, Electron. Lett. 37, 1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, Electron. Lett. 37, 1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 9, 714 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripin, D. J.

D. J. Ripin and L. Goldberg, Electron. Lett. 31, 2204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sahu, J. K.

J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, Electron. Lett. 37, 1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, Opt. Express 9, 714 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, T.

Selvas, R.

J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, Electron. Lett. 37, 1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, R. P. Tumminelli, and F. Hakimi, “Optical fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent4,815,079 (March21, 1989).

Stentz, A. J.

Tumminelli, R. P.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, R. P. Tumminelli, and F. Hakimi, “Optical fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent4,815,079 (March21, 1989).

Tünnermann, A.

Ueda, K.

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, Opt. Commun. 220, 389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vienne, G.

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, Opt. Express 11, 818 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Libori, J. Folkenberg, and G. Vienne, “Optical fibre with high numerical aperture, method of its production, and use thereof,” U.S. patent application 20,030,165,313 (March11, 2003).

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Express 11, 48 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, Electron. Lett. 36, 1452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

T. Weber, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 63, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, T.

T. Weber, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 63, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Xu, J.

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, Opt. Commun. 220, 389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zellmer, H.

Appl. Phys. B

T. Weber, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 63, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. St. J. Russell, and J. Arriaga, Electron. Lett. 36, 1452 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sahu, C. C. Renaud, K. Furusawa, R. Selvas, J. A. Alvarez-Chavez, D. J. Richardson, and J. Nilsson, Electron. Lett. 37, 1116 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Ripin and L. Goldberg, Electron. Lett. 31, 2204 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore, and D. A. Kliner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Xu, J. Lu, G. Kumar, J. Lu, and K. Ueda, Opt. Commun. 220, 389 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

P. St. J. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. Snitzer, H. Po, R. P. Tumminelli, and F. Hakimi, “Optical fiber lasers and amplifiers,” U.S. patent4,815,079 (March21, 1989).

F. Hakimi and H. Hakimi, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 56 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2001), p. 116.

J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, S. Libori, J. Folkenberg, and G. Vienne, “Optical fibre with high numerical aperture, method of its production, and use thereof,” U.S. patent application 20,030,165,313 (March11, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top, microscope image of the transition between unperturbed (left-hand side of the image) and collapsed regions (right-hand side of the image). The individual airholes on the front side of the fiber are visible in the unperturbed region. Bottom left, end view of uncollapsed fiber. Bottom right, end view of collapsed fiber. The diameter of the uncollapsed fiber is 340 µm. See the text for the other fiber dimensions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the side-pumping setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coupling efficiency versus transverse and longitudinal positions of the coupling fiber. The squares are measured values, and the dotted curves are the theoretical estimates. The zero point on the left is located at the midpoint of the fiber, whereas it is located at the starting point of the collapse on the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristics of the Yb fiber laser. The laser has a slope efficiency of 81%. Left inset, front end output below lasing threshold. The output consists of unabsorbed pump light; right inset, front end output above lasing threshold, showing unabsorbed pump light and the laser peak in the central region.

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