Abstract

We link the output spectra of a Ti:sapphire and a Cr:forsterite femtosecond laser phase coherently to form a continuous frequency comb with a wavelength coverage of 0.571.45 µm at power levels of 1 nW to 40 µW per frequency mode. To achieve this, the laser repetition rates and the carrier-envelope offset frequencies are phase locked to each other. The coherence time between the individual components of the two combs is 40 µs. The timing jitter between the lasers is 20 fs. The combined frequency comb is self-referenced for access to its overall offset frequency. We report the first demonstration to our knowledge of an extremely broadband and continuous, high-powered and phase-coherent frequency comb from two femtosecond lasers with different gain media.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (8)

2002 (5)

2001 (3)

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, Z. Zhang, and K. Torizuka, Opt. Lett. 26, 1806 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. J. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, A.

Braun, B.

Callicoatt, B. E.

Chandalia, J.

Corwin, K. L.

Cundiff, S. T.

J. Rauschenberger, T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, Opt. Express 10, 1404 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. J. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

Ell, R.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

T. R. Schibli, J. Kim, O. Kuzucu, J. T. Gopinath, S. N. Tandon, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, Opt. Lett. 28, 947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gohle, Ch.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopinath, J. T.

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. J. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

Holman, K. W.

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, L. A.

Jones, D. J.

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kim, J.

Kobayashi, Y.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Krausz, F.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

Kuzucu, O.

Lange, C. H.

Ma, L.-S.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metzler, G.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirin, R. P.

Morgner, U.

W. Seitz, T. R. Schibli, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, C. H. Lange, W. Richter, and B. Braun, Opt. Lett. 27, 454 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

Nicholson, J. W.

Notcutt, M.

Petrich, G. S.

Ramond, T. M.

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. J. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

Richter, W.

Sanford, N. A.

Schibli, T. R.

Schlager, J. B.

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seitz, W.

Shelton, R. K.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. J. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tandon, S. N.

Thomann, I.

Torizuka, K.

Udem, Th.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, Z.

Windeler, R. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. J. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, M. F.

Ye, J.

Ye, Y.

Yokohama, H.

Zhang, Z.

Nature (2)

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, Nature 421, 611 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (11)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, Science 293, 1286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. J. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of the Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup for phase locking the Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers. A cross-correlation signal is generated in a BBO crystal that is detected with photodiode PD1. This signal is fed back to the PZT in the Ti:sapphire laser. The portions of the spectra that are reflected by a DBS near 1.1 µm are combined in photodiode PD2 to generate a heterodyne beat signal at Δf0. A thick quartz plate adjusts the relative delay between the pulses. Light from the Cr:forsterite laser is frequency doubled and generates a heterodyne beat F0 with the output of the Ti:sapphire laser on photodiode PD3. DBSs, dichroic beam splitters; BSs, beam splitters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Out-of-loop spectral density of the timing jitter between the pulse trains from the Ti:sapphire and the Cr:forsterite lasers with the feedback loop engaged (solid curve, left-hand scale). Integrated timing jitter versus integration bandwidth (dashes curve, right-hand scale). (b) Relative intensity noise (RIN) spectral density of the Cr:forsterite laser and its pump laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Record of consecutive frequency measurements of the phase-locked Δf0 at a 1-s gate time. The standard deviation is 20 mHz. (b) Phase-noise spectrum of the signal at fb (also that of Δf0), equal to the relative phase noise of the equally spaced optical frequency combs (solid curve). The dashed curve is the integral of Sϕf, as mentioned in the text.

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