Abstract

We report a system capable of sequentially acquiring two en-face images of different depth resolutions. The two images are generated by use of different principles, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy, and have depth resolutions, at present, of better than 20 µm and over 0.12 mm, respectively. The lower-depth-resolution image is ideal for target positioning before collection of stacks of en-face OCT images. Switching between the two types of image by flipping an opaque screen in the reference arm, coupled with self-adjusting gain operation of avalanche photodiodes in the receiver. We illustrate the usefulness of the system by imaging a leaf and an optic nerve in vivo.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

C. Hitzenberger, Q. Zhou, P. Trost, S. Schmode, and A. Baumgartner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, Abstract 2856 (2002).

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, and T. J. Hebert, Opt. Express 10, 405 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, K. Rohrschneider, R. O. W. Burk, and H. E. Volcker, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D-Uwe Bartsch and W. R. Freeman, Exp. Eye Res. 58, 161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Bartsch, D-Uwe

D-Uwe Bartsch and W. R. Freeman, Exp. Eye Res. 58, 161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, A.

C. Hitzenberger, Q. Zhou, P. Trost, S. Schmode, and A. Baumgartner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, Abstract 2856 (2002).

Beausencourt, E.

Bellman, C.

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, K. Rohrschneider, R. O. W. Burk, and H. E. Volcker, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burk, R. O. W.

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, K. Rohrschneider, R. O. W. Burk, and H. E. Volcker, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Donnelly, W. J.

Dreher, A. W.

Elsner, A. E.

Fletcher, D. C.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, W. R.

D-Uwe Bartsch and W. R. Freeman, Exp. Eye Res. 58, 161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebert, T. J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

C. Hitzenberger, Q. Zhou, P. Trost, S. Schmode, and A. Baumgartner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, Abstract 2856 (2002).

Holz, F. G.

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, K. Rohrschneider, R. O. W. Burk, and H. E. Volcker, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, G. W.

Jackson, D. A.

Kelley, L. M.

Kunzel, C.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, M.

Podoleanu, A. Gh.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

Raskauskas, P. A.

Rohrschneider, K.

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, K. Rohrschneider, R. O. W. Burk, and H. E. Volcker, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Schmode, S.

C. Hitzenberger, Q. Zhou, P. Trost, S. Schmode, and A. Baumgartner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, Abstract 2856 (2002).

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trost, P.

C. Hitzenberger, Q. Zhou, P. Trost, S. Schmode, and A. Baumgartner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, Abstract 2856 (2002).

Volcker, H. E.

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, K. Rohrschneider, R. O. W. Burk, and H. E. Volcker, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, J. P.

Webb, R. H.

Wing, G. L.

Zhou, Q.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

F. G. Holz, C. Bellman, K. Rohrschneider, R. O. W. Burk, and H. E. Volcker, Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125, 227 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

D-Uwe Bartsch and W. R. Freeman, Exp. Eye Res. 58, 161 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1)

C. Hitzenberger, Q. Zhou, P. Trost, S. Schmode, and A. Baumgartner, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, Abstract 2856 (2002).

Opt. Express (2)

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pairs of sequential OCT (top) and confocal (bottom) images from a leaf. Lateral size; 3.5×3.5 mm. (a) Reference arm blocked. (b) Opaque screen removed; depth d1. (c) Opaque screen removed; depth d2=d1+200 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pairs of sequential OCT (top) and confocal (bottom) images from the optic nerve in vivo. Lateral size, 3 mm×3 mm. The OCT image is collected at a depth halfway between the retinal nerve fiber layer and the lamina cribrosa: (a) reference arm blocked, (b) opaque screen removed.

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