Abstract

An exploratory study on a novel fiber ringdown pressure sensor is presented. With this technique, pressure measurements are achieved in a time domain by measurement of ringdown times. The proof-of-concept device consists of a diode laser light source, two 2×1 fiber couplers, a section of fused-silica single-mode fiber, a photodetector, and an electronic control. The sensor’s performance in the areas of stability, repeatability, and dynamic range is explored. The results demonstrate the new concept of fiber pressure sensors and the technical feasibility of developing a new generation of fiber sensors for pressure measurements.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, Opical Fiber Sensor Technology, Vols. III and IV (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).
  2. For example, J. Greenwood and G. Dobre, Proc. SPIE 4075, 94 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).
  4. G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565 (2000).
  5. D. B. Atkinson, Analyst 128, 117 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104 (1997).
  8. A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. von. Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131 (2002).
  10. T. von. Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Opt. 41, 3567 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Gupta, H. Jiao, and A. O’Keefe, Opt. Lett. 27, 1878 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).
  14. P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, in Abstracts of Papers, 224th American Chemical Society National Meeting (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 18–22.

2003 (1)

D. B. Atkinson, Analyst 128, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

T. von. Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131 (2002).

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).

T. von. Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Opt. 41, 3567 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Gupta, H. Jiao, and A. O’Keefe, Opt. Lett. 27, 1878 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

For example, J. Greenwood and G. Dobre, Proc. SPIE 4075, 94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565 (2000).

1997 (2)

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104 (1997).

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, K.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, D. B.

D. B. Atkinson, Analyst 128, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berden, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565 (2000).

Brown, R. S.

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).

Culshaw, B.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deacon, D. A. G.

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dobre, G.

For example, J. Greenwood and G. Dobre, Proc. SPIE 4075, 94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, Opical Fiber Sensor Technology, Vols. III and IV (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).

Greenwood, J.

For example, J. Greenwood and G. Dobre, Proc. SPIE 4075, 94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

Hudgens, J. W.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104 (1997).

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huie, R. E.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104 (1997).

Jiao, H.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

Kozin, I.

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).

Lehmann, K. K.

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, in Abstracts of Papers, 224th American Chemical Society National Meeting (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 18–22.

Lerber, T. von.

T. von. Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Opt. 41, 3567 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von. Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131 (2002).

Loock, H.-P.

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).

Meggitt, B. T.

K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, Opical Fiber Sensor Technology, Vols. III and IV (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).

Meijer, G.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565 (2000).

O’Keefe, A.

M. Gupta, H. Jiao, and A. O’Keefe, Opt. Lett. 27, 1878 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oleschuk, R. D.

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).

Peeters, R.

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565 (2000).

Pipino, A. C. R.

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104 (1997).

Rabinowitz, P.

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, in Abstracts of Papers, 224th American Chemical Society National Meeting (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 18–22.

Sigrist, M. W.

T. von. Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, Appl. Opt. 41, 3567 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. von. Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131 (2002).

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tarsa, P. B.

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, in Abstracts of Papers, 224th American Chemical Society National Meeting (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 18–22.

Tong, Z.

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).

Yu, H.

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

D. B. Atkinson, Analyst 128, 117 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. von. Lerber and M. W. Sigrist, Chem. Phys. Lett. 353, 131 (2002).

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 104 (1997).

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, and G. Meijer, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565 (2000).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. S. Brown, I. Kozin, Z. Tong, R. D. Oleschuk, and H.-P. Loock, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 10444 (2002).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

G. Stewart, K. Atherton, H. Yu, and B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 843 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

For example, J. Greenwood and G. Dobre, Proc. SPIE 4075, 94 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

A. C. R. Pipino, J. W. Hudgens, and R. E. Huie, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. O’Keefe and D. A. G. Deacon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 2544 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999).

K. T. V. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, Opical Fiber Sensor Technology, Vols. III and IV (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1999).

P. B. Tarsa, P. Rabinowitz, and K. K. Lehmann, in Abstracts of Papers, 224th American Chemical Society National Meeting (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 2002), pp. 18–22.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical fiber loop ringdown waveform. The round-trip time is 298 ns. The ringdown time is 3.95 µs. The fiber loop length is quoted as 61 m. The refractive index of the fused-silica single-mode fiber is determined to be 1.464, which is the same as the material specification number. The detector was used at the minimum gain setting with 10-MHz bandwidth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fiber ringdown pressure–force sensor demonstrates a rapid response [time in hours, minutes, and seconds (HMS)] and very good repeatability. The applied force is 237 g, corresponding to 338 psi 1 psi=51.71 Torr.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ringdown time responses to forces applied on the sensor. Each distinctive step corresponds to a different applied force. From left to right, the applied forces are 0, 40, 79, 158, 198, 237, 281, 339, 378, 418, and 0 g.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dIdt=-IAcnL,
I=I0 exp-cnLAt.
τ0=nL/cA.
τ=nLcA+B,
τ=nLcA+BnLcA1-BA=τ01-βlαL+EF.

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