Abstract

A phase-locked frequency comb in the near infrared is demonstrated with a mode-locked, erbium-doped, fiber laser whose output is amplified and spectrally broadened in dispersion-flattened, highly nonlinear optical fiber to span from 1100 to >2200 nm. The supercontinuum output comprises a frequency comb with a spacing set by the laser repetition rate and an offset by the carrier-envelope offset frequency, which is detected with the standard fto2f heterodyne technique. The comb spacing and offset frequency are phase locked to a stable rf signal with a fiber stretcher in the laser cavity and by control of the pump laser power, respectively. This infrared comb permits frequency metrology experiments in the near infrared in a compact, fiber-laser-based system.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  6. J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, A. Yablon, C. Jorgensen, and T. Veng, Opt. Lett. 28, 643 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. I. N. Duling, Electron. Lett. 27, 544 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 269 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 215 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (8)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Duling, Electron. Lett. 27, 544 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Abeeluck, A. K.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Raymond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Bergquist, J. C.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coen, S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 28, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Cundiff, S. T.

J. Rauschenberger, T. M. Fortier, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, and S. T. Cundiff, Opt. Express 10, 1404 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curtis, E. A.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Dennis, T.

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Raymond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

DiMarcello, F.

Drullinger, R. E.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

I. N. Duling, Electron. Lett. 27, 544 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J.

Fortier, T. M.

Fox, R.

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Gilbert, S.

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Headley, C.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, A.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1 (2003).

Hollberg, L.

A. Bartels, S. A. Diddams, T. M. Raymond, and L. Hollberg, Opt. Lett. 28, 663 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Holman, K. W.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1 (2003).

Inaba, H.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1 (2003).

Ippen, E. P.

Itano, W. M.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

Jorgensen, C.

Jorgensen, C. G.

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. D.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Matsas, V.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1 (2003).

Minoshima, K.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1 (2003).

Monberg, E.

Mori, K.

K. Mori, T. Morioka, A. Takada, and E. Yamazaki, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, P. A. Williams and G. W. Day, eds. (NIST Special Publication 988, Boulder, Colo., 2002), p. 75.

Morioka, T.

K. Mori, T. Morioka, A. Takada, and E. Yamazaki, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, P. A. Williams and G. W. Day, eds. (NIST Special Publication 988, Boulder, Colo., 2002), p. 75.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 28, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Nicholson, J. W.

J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, A. Yablon, C. Jorgensen, and T. Veng, Opt. Lett. 28, 643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Oates, C. W.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Onae, A.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1 (2003).

Payne, D. N.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. W.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

Raymond, T. M.

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, Electron. Lett. 27, 542 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stenz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiura, T.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1 (2003).

Swann, W.

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Takada, A.

K. Mori, T. Morioka, A. Takada, and E. Yamazaki, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, P. A. Williams and G. W. Day, eds. (NIST Special Publication 988, Boulder, Colo., 2002), p. 75.

Takada, H.

F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, Opt. Lett. 28, 1 (2003).

Tamura, K.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, H. Kubota, and E. Yoshida, Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 215 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

Thomann, I.

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, Nature 416, 233 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veng, T.

Vogel, K. R.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Washburn, B. R.

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 28, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilpers, G.

K. L. Corwin, I. Thomann, A. Bartels, T. Dennis, R. Fox, W. Swann, E. A. Curtis, C. W. Oates, G. Wilpers, S. Gilbert, L. Hollberg, N. R. Newbury, S. A. Diddams, J. W. Nicholson, and M. F. Yan, “Absolute frequency measurements with a stabilized near-infrared optical frequency comb from a Cr:forsterite lasers,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Windeler, R. S.

N. R. Newbury, B. R. Washburn, K. L. Corwin, and R. S. Windeler, Opt. Lett. 28, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, B. R. Washburn, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, Appl. Phys. B 77, 269 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stenz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, Th. Udem, J. C. Bergquist, E. A. Curtis, R. E. Drullinger, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, W. D. Lee, C. W. Oates, K. R. Vogel, and D. J. Wineland, Science 293, 825 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wisk, P.

Yablon, A.

Yamazaki, E.

K. Mori, T. Morioka, A. Takada, and E. Yamazaki, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, P. A. Williams and G. W. Day, eds. (NIST Special Publication 988, Boulder, Colo., 2002), p. 75.

Yan, M. F.

J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, J. Fleming, F. DiMarcello, E. Monberg, A. Yablon, C. Jorgensen, and T. Veng, Opt. Lett. 28, 643 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jorgensen, Appl. Phys. B 77, 211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the mode-locked fiber laser, optical amplifier, HNLF, and fto2f interferometer used to generate the locked frequency comb. Photodetectors (PD) provide the locking electronics with both the repetition rate fr and CEO beat frequency f0. Thick solid lines represent free-space optical paths, thin solid lines represent fiber-optic paths, and the dotted lines represent electrical paths. SMF, single-mode fiber; SHG, second-harmonic generation; PC, polarization controller. (b) Electronics used to lock fr and f0. The repetition rate is mixed with a 49.8-MHz signal, and the error signal is used to control the PZT fiber stretcher in the laser cavity. The f0 signal at 64 MHz is filtered, mixed with a 1.1-GHz signal, and divided by 400 in frequency. This signal is compared with a 2.91-MHz signal by a digital phase detector, and the error signal is used to control the 980-nm pump laser current. All synthesizers were referenced to a common time base. HV, high-voltage.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Supercontinuum generated from the 23 cm of HNLF, showing an octave of bandwidth from 1100 to 2200 nm. The spectrum was acquired with a 1/8 m double monochromator and an InAs detector. (b) rf power spectrum from mixing the 1100-nm portion of the supercontinuum with the frequency-doubled 2200-nm portion for an average of ten traces and a bandwidth of 300 kHz. The repetition rate signal at 49.8 MHz and CEO beat frequency f0 are clearly seen. The signal-to-noise ratio of the beat in a 300-kHz bandwidth is typically 30 dB. Inset, expanded fr+f0 beat signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency counter results for a 1-s gate time for the locked repetition rate fr and CEO beat frequency f0.

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