Abstract

Pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy is applied for quantitative gas-phase temperature measurements in the vaporizing spray of an automotive fuel injector. Interferences from elastically scattered stray light are greatly reduced by use of a polarization technique and spectral filtering in a double monochromator. The applicability of this technique to probing low-temperature sprays is successfully demonstrated.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).
  2. R. W. Anderson, J. Yang, D. D. Brehob, J. K. Vallance, and R. M. Whiteaker, (1996).
  3. M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, Appl. Opt. 25, 4493 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. C. Eckbreth and T. J. Anderson, Opt. Lett. 11, 496 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Schmitz, W. Ipp, and A. Leipertz, (2002).
  6. J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, and I. Denbratt, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).
  7. J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Nature 276, 378 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Development of dual-broadband rotational CARS for practical applications,” presented at the European Conference on Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy, Besancon, France, 2003.
  10. A. Owyoung, “The origin of nonlinear refractive indices of liquids and glasses,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1971).
  11. D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).
  12. A. C. Eckbreth and R. J. Hall, Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Kojima and Q.-V. Nguyen, Appl. Opt. 41, 6360 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1981 (1)

A. C. Eckbreth and R. J. Hall, Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Nature 276, 378 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Afzelius, M.

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Development of dual-broadband rotational CARS for practical applications,” presented at the European Conference on Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy, Besancon, France, 2003.

Aldén, M.

Anderson, R. W.

R. W. Anderson, J. Yang, D. D. Brehob, J. K. Vallance, and R. M. Whiteaker, (1996).

Anderson, T. J.

Beattie, I. R.

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Nature 276, 378 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, P.-E.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, P.-E. Bengtsson, and H. Edner, Appl. Opt. 25, 4493 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Development of dual-broadband rotational CARS for practical applications,” presented at the European Conference on Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy, Besancon, France, 2003.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, and I. Denbratt, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Bood, J.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, and I. Denbratt, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Brehob, D. D.

R. W. Anderson, J. Yang, D. D. Brehob, J. K. Vallance, and R. M. Whiteaker, (1996).

Burgdorf, K.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, and I. Denbratt, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Denbratt, I.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, and I. Denbratt, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Dreier, T.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth and T. J. Anderson, Opt. Lett. 11, 496 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth and R. J. Hall, Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

Edner, H.

Gilson, T. R.

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Nature 276, 378 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Greenhalgh, D. A.

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Nature 276, 378 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. J.

A. C. Eckbreth and R. J. Hall, Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ipp, W.

I. Schmitz, W. Ipp, and A. Leipertz, (2002).

Kojima, J.

Leipertz, A.

I. Schmitz, W. Ipp, and A. Leipertz, (2002).

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

Mauss, F.

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, and I. Denbratt, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

Nguyen, Q.-V.

Owyoung, A.

A. Owyoung, “The origin of nonlinear refractive indices of liquids and glasses,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1971).

Schmitz, I.

I. Schmitz, W. Ipp, and A. Leipertz, (2002).

Vallance, J. K.

R. W. Anderson, J. Yang, D. D. Brehob, J. K. Vallance, and R. M. Whiteaker, (1996).

Whiteaker, R. M.

R. W. Anderson, J. Yang, D. D. Brehob, J. K. Vallance, and R. M. Whiteaker, (1996).

Yang, J.

R. W. Anderson, J. Yang, D. D. Brehob, J. K. Vallance, and R. M. Whiteaker, (1996).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. C. Eckbreth and R. J. Hall, Combust. Sci. Technol. 25, 175 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, and T. Dreier, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 703 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

I. R. Beattie, T. R. Gilson, and D. A. Greenhalgh, Nature 276, 378 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

I. Schmitz, W. Ipp, and A. Leipertz, (2002).

J. Bood, P.-E. Bengtsson, F. Mauss, K. Burgdorf, and I. Denbratt, (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1997).

M. Afzelius and P.-E. Bengtsson, “Development of dual-broadband rotational CARS for practical applications,” presented at the European Conference on Nonlinear Optical Spectroscopy, Besancon, France, 2003.

A. Owyoung, “The origin of nonlinear refractive indices of liquids and glasses,” Ph.D. dissertation (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1971).

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

R. W. Anderson, J. Yang, D. D. Brehob, J. K. Vallance, and R. M. Whiteaker, (1996).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spray image taken 4 ms after the visible SOI by use of the laser sheet Mie scattering technique and identification of the local position of the measurement volume.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental spectrum taken 4 ms after the SOI without any stray-light suppression.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental spectrum taken within the spray with the stray-light suppressed by a polarizer and the knife edge moved to a position of 45 cm-1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Probability density of the temperature results 3 ms after the SOI, with a mean temperature of 426 K, i.e., equal to the chamber temperature, and with a standard deviation of 15 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Probability density of the temperature results 4 ms after the SOI when the spray has reached the measurement location. The mean temperature is 408 K with a standard deviation of 18 K.

Equations (6)

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ECARSχ11223e1e2·eS+χ12123e2e1·eS+χ12213eSe1·e2E1ES*E2,
χ11223=1/24σ+2aω2-ωS+bω1-ωS,
χ12123=1/24σ+2aω1-ωS+bω2-ωS,
χ12213=1/24σ+bω2-ωS+bω1-ωS,
χ11113=χ11223+χ12123+χ12213,
ICARS=χ11113cos θ2 sin θ2-χ12123cos θ2 sin θ22I1ISI2.

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