Abstract

We describe measurements of polarization dynamics as a probe of multiple scattering of photons in a random medium by use of single-cycle terahertz pulses. We measure the degree of polarization and correlate it directly with the single-scattering regime in the time domain. We also measure the evolution of the temporal phase of the radiation and show that the average spectral content depends on the state of polarization. In the case of broadband radiation, this effect can be used to distinguish photons that have been scattered a few times from those that are propagating diffusively.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2004 (1)

2003 (2)

J. Pearce, Z. Jian, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jian, J. Pearce, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

1999 (1)

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 157 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. R. Birch, J. D. Dromey, and J. Lesurf, Infrared Phys. 21, 225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J. R.

J. R. Birch, J. D. Dromey, and J. Lesurf, Infrared Phys. 21, 225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1999), Sect. 10.9.
[CrossRef]

Bretenaker, F.

Brosseau, C.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.

Damaschini, V.

Demos, S. G.

Dogariu, A.

Dromey, J. D.

J. R. Birch, J. D. Dromey, and J. Lesurf, Infrared Phys. 21, 225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Emile, O.

Engheta, N.

Epifanie, M.

Gan, X. S.

Gu, M.

Gurianov, E. V.

Hashimoto, K.

Horinaka, H.

Hovenier, J. W.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

Hsu, I.-J.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishimaru, A.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

Jarry, G.

Jian, Z.

J. Pearce, Z. Jian, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jian, J. Pearce, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. L.

Jurczak, M.

Kaiser, R.

Kiang, Y.-W.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kutsche, C.

Le Floch, A.

Lesurf, J.

J. R. Birch, J. D. Dromey, and J. Lesurf, Infrared Phys. 21, 225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Likamwa, P.

Lin, C.-W.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-W.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

Mittleman, D.

J. Pearce, Z. Jian, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jian, J. Pearce, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Oh, J.-T.

Osawa, M.

Pearce, J.

Z. Jian, J. Pearce, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Pearce, Z. Jian, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Pearce and D. M. Mittleman, Opt. Lett. 26, 2002 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, E. N.

Rowe, M. P.

Rudd, J. V.

Schilders, S. P.

Schmitt, J. M.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sinichkin, Y. P.

Steimer, E.

Sun, C.-W.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

Trifonov, V. A.

Tuchin, V. V.

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 157 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyo, J. S.

Wada, K.

Wang, C.-Y.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

A. Dogariu and E. Wolf, Opt. Lett. 23, 1340 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1999), Sect. 10.9.
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, Opt. Lett. 26, 432 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 157 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimnyakov, D. A.

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C.-W. Sun, C.-Y. Wang, C. C. Yang, Y.-W. Kiang, C.-W. Lu, I.-J. Hsu, and C.-W. Lin, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 924 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

J. R. Birch, J. D. Dromey, and J. Lesurf, Infrared Phys. 21, 225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. A. Zimnyakov, V. V. Tuchin, and A. G. Yodh, J. Biomed. Opt. 4, 157 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. Pearce, Z. Jian, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jian, J. Pearce, and D. Mittleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, and L. D. Travis, Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2000).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, New York, 1978).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1999), Sect. 10.9.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured time-of-flight distributions of the parallel polarization It, the perpendicular polarization It, and the sum ITotalt. Inset, degree of polarization, Pt (open circles) and also time-windowed intensity correlation function CI (solid curve). The latter is computed by windowing It and It in the time domain by use of a 100-ps square window and computing the correlation as a function of the window position as described in Ref. 20. Vertical dashed lines, range of times during which singly scattered photons arrive, as determined from Fig. 3 below. Note that the time axis here and throughout this Letter has an arbitrary time of t=0, which is determined by the absolute transmitter-to-receiver distance and is the same for all our measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top, a schematic illustrating the method that we used to determine the arrival times of singly scattered photons. A metal rod is placed at several different locations in the medium, giving rise to a strong single scattering signature. Bottom, (b), (c) waveforms that correspond to the locations of the metal rod that resulted in the earliest PS and the latest PL arrival times. Waveform (a) was measured without the rod present.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average phase functions for parallel ϕt and perpendicular ϕt polarizations. Inset, difference between these two functions. A linear fit to this difference, at later delays, yields the average frequency difference between the two polarizations components in the diffusive regime.

Equations (1)

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Pt=It-ItIt+It.

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