Abstract

High-energy laser systems include an optical train and a gas medium that must be capable of transporting and directing the beam. The optical train is termed a laser beam tube. Because of the finite absorption of laser energy, the thermal effects of the beam tube make the beam diffuse and cause degradation of the laser beam’s quality. We study systematically a beam tube consisting of a laser window made from white bijou (i.e., Al2O3) or fused silica and a tube of nonflowing nitrogen or helium gas. The results show that the thermal effects of the window and the gas on the beam neutralize each other; in particular, in some cases they compensate for each other completely, such that the beam tube has no effect on the beam quality in spite of the fact that separately each has a severe effect. We explain how to acquire the specific cases.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Bendow and P. Gianino, Appl. Opt. 12, 710 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. A. Klein, Proc. SPIE 4376, 24 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Gavrielides and P. Peterson, Appl. Opt. 22, 3359 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. I. Shen and M. Andrepont, Proc. SPIE 4034, 100 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. H. Wang, X. J. Xu, and Z. F. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4926, 181 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-Z. An, Y.-K. Li, and X.-W. Du, High Power Laser Part. Beams 16, 428 (2004).
  8. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

2004

J.-Z. An, Y.-K. Li, and X.-W. Du, High Power Laser Part. Beams 16, 428 (2004).

2002

S. H. Wang, X. J. Xu, and Z. F. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4926, 181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. A. Klein, Proc. SPIE 4376, 24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. I. Shen and M. Andrepont, Proc. SPIE 4034, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1983

1973

An, J.-Z.

J.-Z. An, Y.-K. Li, and X.-W. Du, High Power Laser Part. Beams 16, 428 (2004).

Andrepont, M.

P. I. Shen and M. Andrepont, Proc. SPIE 4034, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bendow, B.

Billman, K. W.

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Bukley, A. P.

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Daigneault, S. M.

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Detrio, J. A.

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Du, X.-W.

J.-Z. An, Y.-K. Li, and X.-W. Du, High Power Laser Part. Beams 16, 428 (2004).

Gavrielides, A.

Gianino, P.

Jiang, Z. F.

S. H. Wang, X. J. Xu, and Z. F. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4926, 181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klein, C. A.

C. A. Klein, Proc. SPIE 4376, 24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-K.

J.-Z. An, Y.-K. Li, and X.-W. Du, High Power Laser Part. Beams 16, 428 (2004).

Moran, M. B.

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nee, S.-M. F.

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, P.

Shen, P. I.

P. I. Shen and M. Andrepont, Proc. SPIE 4034, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tran, D. C.

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. H.

S. H. Wang, X. J. Xu, and Z. F. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4926, 181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. J.

S. H. Wang, X. J. Xu, and Z. F. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4926, 181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

High Power Laser Part. Beams

J.-Z. An, Y.-K. Li, and X.-W. Du, High Power Laser Part. Beams 16, 428 (2004).

Proc. SPIE

P. I. Shen and M. Andrepont, Proc. SPIE 4034, 100 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Wang, X. J. Xu, and Z. F. Jiang, Proc. SPIE 4926, 181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Klein, Proc. SPIE 4376, 24 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Billman, D. C. Tran, L. F. Johnson, M. B. Moran, S.-M. F. Nee, J. A. Detrio, S. M. Daigneault, and A. P. Bukley, Proc. SPIE 4376, 45 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 1999).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of top, beam tube and bottom, laser beam profile. A uniform annular laser beam profile is assumed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beam quality after a laser has passed through a beam tube consisting of a white bijou window and a tube filled with nitrogen versus length of the tube at a laser irradiation time of 4 s. (a) At different laser intensities the pressure of the gas is 1 atm. (b) At different pressures of gas for a white bijou window and nitrogen the intensity of the laser is 2000 W/cm2.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δϕw=n-1δd+dδn2π/λ,
δϕw=χdT2π/λ,
χ=n-1αl1+v+dndT,
δϕg=2πλ0Lδngdz.
δng=n0-1δρ/ρ0,
δϕg=2πλn0-1LTgT0,
μg=3.1553×10-2h+1.72646×10-4h2,
δϕ=δϕw+δϕg.
β=r1/r2,

Metrics