Abstract

The development of ultrahigh-quality-factor Q silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microring resonators based on silicon wire waveguides is presented. An analytical description is derived, illustrating that in addition to low propagation losses the critical coupling condition is essential for optimizing device characteristics. Propagation losses as low as 1.9±0.1 dB/cm in a curved waveguide with a bending radius of 20 µm and a Q factor as high as 139.000±6.000 are demonstrated. These are believed to be the highest values reported for a curved SOI waveguide device and for any directly structured semiconductor microring fabricated without additional melting-induced surface smoothing.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

L. Eldada, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 575 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 23, 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, Proc. IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 289.

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 289.

Blair, S.

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 289.

Bolivar, P. Haring

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 289.

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 575 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, Y. M.

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Greene, W.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

Guo, L. J.

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Henschel, W.

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Ippen, E. P.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

Kimble, H. J.

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klunder, D. J. W.

Kokubun, Y.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krioukov, E.

Kurdi, B. N.

Kurz, H.

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mabuchi, H.

Mönster, M.

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

Otto, C.

Pan, W.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, Proc. IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Streed, E. W.

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

Thoen, E. R.

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

Uchiyama, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 289.

Vernooy, D. W.

Vörckel, A.

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 289.

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 289.

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 549 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, and Y. Kokubun, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 323 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Vörckel, M. Mönster, W. Henschel, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. Henschel, Y. M. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. A. Soref, Proc. IEEE 81, 1687 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Eldada, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 575 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, E. Tamechika, T. Shoji, K. Yamada, J. Takahashi, S. Uchiyama, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2002), p. 287.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, in LEOS Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 2003), p. 289.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrographs of a SOI microring resonator with a radius of 20 µm, including an overview and a coupling region closeup (inset).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured insertion loss and fit of analytical transfer function of a SOI microring resonator of radius r=20 µm, with Δλ=λ-1547.680 nm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q=2πneffλ0L2 arccos{1-4t/τ+t/τ2/-2t/τ]}=λ0Δλ3 dB,
Q=2πneffλ0L-2 ln tτ;
Qlimit=2πneffλ0L-2 ln τ=2πneffλ01α.
FEcritical=11-τ2.
S212=t2-2tτ cos ϕ+τ21-2tτ cos ϕ+tτ2,
αdBcm=-2×105 log10τLμm.

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