Abstract

We generated a record peak intensity of 0.7×1022 W/cm2 by focusing a 45-TW laser beam with an f/0.6 off-axis paraboloid. The aberrations of the paraboloid and the low-energy reference laser beam were measured and corrected, and a focal spot size of 0.8 µm was achieved. It is shown that the peak intensity can be increased to 1.0×1022 W/cm2 by correction of the wave front of a 45-TW beam relative to the reference beam. The phase and amplitude measurement provides for an efficient full characterization of the focal field.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, J. Koga, and T. Tajima, Plasma Phys. Rep. 30, 196 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. D. Bonlie, F. Patterson, D. Price, B. White, and P. Springer, Appl. Phys. B 70, S155 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Druon, G. Chériaux, J. Faure, J. Nees, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, J. C. Chanteloup, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 23, 1043 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Varga and P. Török, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2081 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Montgomery, R. P. Johnson, H. A. Rose, J. A. Cobble, and J. C. Fernández, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 678 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Agostini, G. Barjot, J. F. Bonnal, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, and J. Morellec, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 667 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Yanovsky, S.-W. Bahk, C. Felix, N. Saleh, P. Rousseau, V. Chvykov, and G. Mourou, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CMK4.
  8. Z. Sacks, G. Mourou, and R. Danielius, Opt. Lett. 26, 462 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Rau, T. Tajima, and H. Hojo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3310 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. M. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, “Attosecond electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

2004 (2)

S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, J. Koga, and T. Tajima, Plasma Phys. Rep. 30, 196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

J. D. Bonlie, F. Patterson, D. Price, B. White, and P. Springer, Appl. Phys. B 70, S155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Varga and P. Török, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 2081 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Montgomery, R. P. Johnson, H. A. Rose, J. A. Cobble, and J. C. Fernández, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 678 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

B. Rau, T. Tajima, and H. Hojo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, J. F. Bonnal, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, and J. Morellec, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 667 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, J. F. Bonnal, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, and J. Morellec, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 667 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bahk, S.-W.

V. Yanovsky, S.-W. Bahk, C. Felix, N. Saleh, P. Rousseau, V. Chvykov, and G. Mourou, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CMK4.

Barjot, G.

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, J. F. Bonnal, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, and J. Morellec, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 667 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bonlie, J. D.

J. D. Bonlie, F. Patterson, D. Price, B. White, and P. Springer, Appl. Phys. B 70, S155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bonnal, J. F.

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, J. F. Bonnal, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, and J. Morellec, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 667 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bulanov, S. V.

S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, J. Koga, and T. Tajima, Plasma Phys. Rep. 30, 196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chanteloup, J. C.

Chériaux, G.

Chvykov, V.

V. Yanovsky, S.-W. Bahk, C. Felix, N. Saleh, P. Rousseau, V. Chvykov, and G. Mourou, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CMK4.

Cobble, J. A.

D. S. Montgomery, R. P. Johnson, H. A. Rose, J. A. Cobble, and J. C. Fernández, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 678 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danielius, R.

Druon, F.

Esirkepov, T. Zh.

S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, J. Koga, and T. Tajima, Plasma Phys. Rep. 30, 196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Faure, J.

Felix, C.

V. Yanovsky, S.-W. Bahk, C. Felix, N. Saleh, P. Rousseau, V. Chvykov, and G. Mourou, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CMK4.

Fernández, J. C.

D. S. Montgomery, R. P. Johnson, H. A. Rose, J. A. Cobble, and J. C. Fernández, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 678 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hojo, H.

B. Rau, T. Tajima, and H. Hojo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hou, B.

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. P.

D. S. Montgomery, R. P. Johnson, H. A. Rose, J. A. Cobble, and J. C. Fernández, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 678 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koga, J.

S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, J. Koga, and T. Tajima, Plasma Phys. Rep. 30, 196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, J. F. Bonnal, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, and J. Morellec, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 667 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Maksimchuk, A.

F. Druon, G. Chériaux, J. Faure, J. Nees, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, J. C. Chanteloup, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 23, 1043 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, “Attosecond electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Manus, C.

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, J. F. Bonnal, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, and J. Morellec, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 667 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, D. S.

D. S. Montgomery, R. P. Johnson, H. A. Rose, J. A. Cobble, and J. C. Fernández, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 678 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morellec, J.

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, J. F. Bonnal, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, and J. Morellec, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 667 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Z. Sacks, G. Mourou, and R. Danielius, Opt. Lett. 26, 462 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Druon, G. Chériaux, J. Faure, J. Nees, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, J. C. Chanteloup, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 23, 1043 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Yanovsky, S.-W. Bahk, C. Felix, N. Saleh, P. Rousseau, V. Chvykov, and G. Mourou, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CMK4.

N. M. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, “Attosecond electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Mourou, G. A.

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nantel, M.

Naumova, N. M.

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, “Attosecond electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Nees, J.

F. Druon, G. Chériaux, J. Faure, J. Nees, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, G. Mourou, J. C. Chanteloup, and G. Vdovin, Opt. Lett. 23, 1043 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, “Attosecond electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Nees, J. A.

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, F.

J. D. Bonlie, F. Patterson, D. Price, B. White, and P. Springer, Appl. Phys. B 70, S155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Price, D.

J. D. Bonlie, F. Patterson, D. Price, B. White, and P. Springer, Appl. Phys. B 70, S155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rau, B.

B. Rau, T. Tajima, and H. Hojo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rose, H. A.

D. S. Montgomery, R. P. Johnson, H. A. Rose, J. A. Cobble, and J. C. Fernández, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 678 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rousseau, P.

V. Yanovsky, S.-W. Bahk, C. Felix, N. Saleh, P. Rousseau, V. Chvykov, and G. Mourou, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CMK4.

Sacks, Z.

Saleh, N.

V. Yanovsky, S.-W. Bahk, C. Felix, N. Saleh, P. Rousseau, V. Chvykov, and G. Mourou, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CMK4.

Sokolov, I.

N. M. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, “Attosecond electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Sokolov, I. V.

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Springer, P.

J. D. Bonlie, F. Patterson, D. Price, B. White, and P. Springer, Appl. Phys. B 70, S155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, T.

S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, J. Koga, and T. Tajima, Plasma Phys. Rep. 30, 196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Rau, T. Tajima, and H. Hojo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Török, P.

Varga, P.

Vdovin, G.

White, B.

J. D. Bonlie, F. Patterson, D. Price, B. White, and P. Springer, Appl. Phys. B 70, S155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V.

V. Yanovsky, S.-W. Bahk, C. Felix, N. Saleh, P. Rousseau, V. Chvykov, and G. Mourou, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CMK4.

N. M. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, “Attosecond electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. D. Bonlie, F. Patterson, D. Price, B. White, and P. Springer, Appl. Phys. B 70, S155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Agostini, G. Barjot, J. F. Bonnal, G. Mainfray, C. Manus, and J. Morellec, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 667 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

B. Rau, T. Tajima, and H. Hojo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Naumova, J. A. Nees, I. V. Sokolov, B. Hou, and G. A. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 063902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Montgomery, R. P. Johnson, H. A. Rose, J. A. Cobble, and J. C. Fernández, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 678 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasma Phys. Rep. (1)

S. V. Bulanov, T. Zh. Esirkepov, J. Koga, and T. Tajima, Plasma Phys. Rep. 30, 196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

V. Yanovsky, S.-W. Bahk, C. Felix, N. Saleh, P. Rousseau, V. Chvykov, and G. Mourou, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 73 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), paper CMK4.

N. M. Naumova, I. Sokolov, J. Nees, A. Maksimchuk, V. Yanovsky, and G. Mourou, “Attosecond electron bunches,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for measuring and correcting laser beam and focusing optic aberrations by use of a regen amplifier beam: HM, high-reflectivity mirror; DM, deformable mirror; PM, f/0.6 paraboloid; OL, infinity-corrected apochromatic–planatic objective with a N.A. of 0.75, 40×; DL, doublet lens; WS, Shack–Hartmann wave-front sensor; VC, vacuum chamber. (b) Setup for measuring the phase of a high-energy beam compared with that of a reference beam (regen beam): BM, blank mirror; L1, lens, f1=50 cm; L2, lens, f2=4 cm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(c) Measured wave fronts and (d)–(f) calculated focused intensities. (a) Wave front measured after focusing by a regen beam with no correction. rms, 0.936λ; peak-to-valley distance, 4.247λ. (b) Corrected wave-front after focusing by a regen beam. rms, 0.066λ; peak-to-valley distance, 0.618λ. (c) Differential wave front at 45 TW versus regen beam. rms, 0.154λ; peak-to-valley distance, 0.657λ. (d) Calculated focal intensity with no correction at full power (45 TW). Ipeak=1×1021 W/cm2. (e) Calculated focal intensity after correction of the aberrations of the regen beam and the paraboloid. Ipeak=6.9±0.7×1021 W/cm2. (f) Calculated focal intensity with the correction of the aberrations from power amplifiers. Ipeak=1±0.1×1022 W/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(b), (d) Comparison of focal spot calculation and (a), (c) measurement with a 12-bit CCD camera at the regen level. (c), (d) Before correction; (a), (b) after correction. (b), (d) Calculated by use of measured phase and amplitude profile after focusing.

Equations (1)

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x0=2f-p cos φ+m sin φ/1+p sin φ+m cos φ, y0=2f-q/1+p sin φ+m cos φ,

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