Abstract

We report an experimental demonstration of a heterodyne polarization rotation measurement with a noise floor 4.8 dB below the optical shot noise by use of classically phase-locked quantum twin beams emitted above threshold by an ultrastable type II Na:KTP cw optical parametric oscillator. We believe that this is the largest noise reduction achieved to date in optical phase-difference measurements.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Luis and L. L. Sánchez-Soto, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 2000), Vol. 41, p. 421.
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 75 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Kuzmich and L. Mandel, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 493 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiss, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. J. Snyder, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, A. Heidmann, and M. Ducloy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2132 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Feng and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 203601 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Feng and O. Pfister, Proc. SPIE 5161, 109 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Feng and O. Pfister, J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 262 (2003).
  18. C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. 50, 1209 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-26, 78 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Gao, F. Cui, C. Xue, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Opt. Lett. 23, 870 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, N. Treps, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213601 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Feng and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 203601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Feng and O. Pfister, Proc. SPIE 5161, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Feng and O. Pfister, J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 262 (2003).

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, N. Treps, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiss, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. Gao, F. Cui, C. Xue, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Opt. Lett. 23, 870 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuzmich and L. Mandel, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 75 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, Opt. Lett. 5, 15 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-26, 78 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Burnett, K.

M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 75 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Coudreau, T.

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, N. Treps, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cui, F.

Drummond, P. D.

M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ducloy, M.

Fabre, C.

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, N. Treps, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Snyder, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, A. Heidmann, and M. Ducloy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2132 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

S. Feng and O. Pfister, Proc. SPIE 5161, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Feng and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 203601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Feng and O. Pfister, J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 262 (2003).

Gao, J.

Giacobino, E.

J. J. Snyder, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, A. Heidmann, and M. Ducloy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2132 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Heidmann, A.

J. J. Snyder, E. Giacobino, C. Fabre, A. Heidmann, and M. Ducloy, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2132 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holland, M. J.

M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Horowicz, R. J.

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

König, F.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiss, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korolkova, N.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiss, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmich, A.

A. Kuzmich and L. Mandel, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiss, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaPorta, A.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurat, J.

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, N. Treps, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiss, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luis, A.

A. Luis and L. L. Sánchez-Soto, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 2000), Vol. 41, p. 421.
[CrossRef]

Maître, A.

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, N. Treps, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

A. Kuzmich and L. Mandel, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, K.

J. Gao, F. Cui, C. Xue, C. Xie, and K. Peng, Opt. Lett. 23, 870 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, S. F.

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfister, O.

S. Feng and O. Pfister, Proc. SPIE 5161, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Feng and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 203601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Feng and O. Pfister, J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 262 (2003).

Reid, M. D.

M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reynaud, S.

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, H. G.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Soto, L. L.

A. Luis and L. L. Sánchez-Soto, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 2000), Vol. 41, p. 421.
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, J. H.

H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-26, 78 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Silberhorn, Ch.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiss, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, J. J.

Treps, N.

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, N. Treps, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, O.

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiss, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L.-A.

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, C.

Xue, C.

Yuen, H. P.

H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-26, 78 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yurke, B.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

H. P. Yuen and J. H. Shapiro, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-26, 78 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. (1)

S. Feng and O. Pfister, J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 5, 262 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (1)

C. Fabre, E. Giacobino, A. Heidmann, and S. Reynaud, J. Phys. 50, 1209 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. D (1)

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

M. J. Holland and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1355 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Feng and O. Pfister, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 203601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 75 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Heidmann, R. J. Horowicz, S. Reynaud, E. Giacobino, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2555 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laurat, T. Coudreau, N. Treps, A. Maître, and C. Fabre, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 213601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Reid and P. D. Drummond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 2731 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Ou, S. F. Pereira, H. J. Kimble, and K. Peng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Silberhorn, P. K. Lam, O. Weiss, F. König, N. Korolkova, and G. Leuchs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4267 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Feng and O. Pfister, Proc. SPIE 5161, 109 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Semiclass. Opt. (1)

A. Kuzmich and L. Mandel, Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 10, 493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Luis and L. L. Sánchez-Soto, in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 2000), Vol. 41, p. 421.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: Mi, input mirror (reflectivity, 0% at 532 nm; 99.99% at 1064 nm); Mo, output mirror (reflectivity, 99.995% at 532 nm; 98% at 1064 nm); FI, Faraday isolator; EOM, electro-optic modulator; DM, dichroic mirror; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; PLL, electronic phase-lock loop; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; TC, temperature controller.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sub-SNL heterodyne polarimetry signals. In (a)–(c) the two flat traces are the SNL (top) and the detection electronics noise (bottom). The peaked trace is the twin-beam beat-note signal, the subhertz beat-note linewidth13,14 of which is not directly visible on these records, since the spectrum analyzer’s resolution and video bandwidths are 3 kHz (100 averages). The maximum beat-note amplitude (θ=22.5°) is 25 dBm. MNR, measurement-noise reduction.

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