Abstract

We demonstrate an all-optical nor logic gate based on symmetric GaAs–AlGaAs microring resonators whose resonances are closely matched. Two input pump data streams are tuned close to one resonance of the symmetric microrings to switch a probe beam tuned to another resonance by two-photon absorption. The switching energy of the gate is 20 pJ/pulse, and the switching window is 40 ps, limited by the carrier lifetime. The use of two rings provides for better cascading in photonic logic circuits because of the higher number of available ports.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. D. Smith, Appl. Opt. 25, 1550 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Lett. 24, 847 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 49 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. A. Ibrahim, “Nonlinear optical microring resonators,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 2003).
  10. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1990 (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1976 (1)

J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P. P.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Amarnath, K.

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Calhoun, L. C.

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Del Alamo, J. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ding, T. N.

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goldhar, J.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grover, R.

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

Ho, P.-T.

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, “Nonlinear optical microring resonators,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 2003).

Johnson, F. G.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanakaraju, S.

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, L.-C.

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leng, Y.

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, K. J.

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

Smith, W. L.

J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. Del Alamo, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

T. A. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1422 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, B. E. Little, F. G. Johnson, K. J. Ritter, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Grover, T. A. Ibrahim, T. N. Ding, Y. Leng, L.-C. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, K. Amarnath, L. C. Calhoun, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1082 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ibrahim, W. Cao, Y. Kim, J. Li, J. Goldhar, P.-T. Ho, and C. H. Lee, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. A. Ibrahim, “Nonlinear optical microring resonators,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Maryland, College Park, Md., 2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical micrograph of the nor logic gate. The two microring resonators are symmetric and of 9.6µm radii. The etched features appear lighter, while the waveguides appear as dark lines and curves. Inset, magnified picture of the microring resonators underneath the bus waveguides. A, B, pump inputs; C, probe input; F, probe output.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized spectrum for (a) the throughput port, (b) the drop port of the first microring resonator, (c) the drop port of the second microring resonator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral schematic of nor logic gate operation. Solid curves, spectral characteristics of intensity inside the ring when the pump beam is off. Dashed curves, the blueshifted spectral characteristics when the pump is on. The positions of the pump and the probe wavelengths are indicated by dotted vertical lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time traces for the input pump data streams (a) A and (b) B at 1546 nm and (c) the output probe signal at 1557 nm, showing the nor logic operation.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dNctdt=α22ωIr2t-Nctτc,
Δn=-σrNc,

Metrics