Abstract

Time-resolved backscattering profiles of circularly and linearly polarized light were measured from a turbid medium composed of small and large polystyrene sphere particles in water. It is shown that, based on the measurements of the time-resolved backscattered copolarized and cross-polarized components of the incident polarized light, either linearly or circularly polarized light can be used to effectively image an object that is deep inside a turbid medium composed of small particles, depending on the depolarization properties of the object itself. For large particles such as in tissue, fog, and clouds, the experimentally observed polarization memory effect on the backscattering temporal profiles suggests that a significant improvement in the image contrast can be achieved by use of circularly polarized light.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2002 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, JETP Lett. 68, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, G. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Alfano, R. R.

Y. Guo, H. E. Savage, F. Liu, S. P. Schantz, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos and R. R. Alfano, Appl. Opt. 36, 150 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, G. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D. A.

Brosseau, C.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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Chipman, R. A.

Clemenceau, P.

P. Clemenceau, A. Dogariu, and J. S. Stryjewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
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Corey, R.

Demos, S. G.

Dogariu, A.

P. Clemenceau, A. Dogariu, and J. S. Stryjewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerligand, P. Y.

Gilbert, G. D.

Gorodnichev, E. E.

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, JETP Lett. 68, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, H. E. Savage, F. Liu, S. P. Schantz, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

Y. Guo, H. E. Savage, F. Liu, S. P. Schantz, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, G. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, D. L.

Kim, A. D.

Kriete, A.

Kukulies, J.

Kuzovlev, A. I.

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, JETP Lett. 68, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, G. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Y. Guo, H. E. Savage, F. Liu, S. P. Schantz, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, G. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Masters, B. R.

Morgan, S. P.

Moscoso, M.

O’Leary, M. A.

Pernicka, J. C.

Pine, D. J.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridgway, M. E.

Roberts, P. J.

Rogozkin, D. B.

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, JETP Lett. 68, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saulnier, P.

Savage, H. E.

Y. Guo, H. E. Savage, F. Liu, S. P. Schantz, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schantz, S. P.

Y. Guo, H. E. Savage, F. Liu, S. P. Schantz, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A.

Schmitt, J. M.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. H.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stryjewski, J. S.

P. Clemenceau, A. Dogariu, and J. S. Stryjewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, G. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, D. A.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, G. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J. X.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

JETP Lett. (1)

E. E. Gorodnichev, A. I. Kuzovlev, and D. B. Rogozkin, JETP Lett. 68, 22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, Phys. Rev. B 40, 9342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, and J. M. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

Y. Guo, H. E. Savage, F. Liu, S. P. Schantz, P. P. Ho, and R. R. Alfano, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 10854 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Clemenceau, A. Dogariu, and J. S. Stryjewski, Proc. SPIE 4035, 401 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, G. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, Science 253, 769 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the backscattering polarization experimental setup: CPM, colliding-pulse mode-locked; BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-resolved profiles for copolarized (solid curves) and cross-polarized (dotted curves) backscattered light from a turbid medium containing small particles of diameter d=0.213 µm. Scattering coefficient μs=0.61 cm-1. In (a) and (b) the sample is illuminated with linearly and left-handed circularly polarized light, respectively. Leftmost peak in the profile, backscattered light from the turbid medium; the second peak is the backscattered light from the mirror target at the back wall of the sample cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved profiles for copolarized (solid curves) and cross-polarized (dotted curves) backscattered light from a turbid medium containing large particles of diameter d=8 µm. Scattering coefficient μs=1.54 cm-1. In (a) and (b) the sample is illuminated with linearly and left-handed circularly polarized light, respectively.

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