Abstract

We present experimental evidence that the intensity correlations of light scattered from a cold-atom cloud are sensitive to the presence of small amounts of radiation trapping in an atomic sample of density 6×108/cm3, with an optical depth (for a resonant light beam) of 0.4. This density and optical depth are approximately an order of magnitude less than the density and on-resonance optical depth at which effects of multiple scattering in cold-atom clouds have been previously observed [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990)].

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. F. Molisch and B. P. Oehry, Radiation Trapping in Atomic Vapours (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1998).
  2. M. Fleischhauer, Europhys. Lett. 45, 659 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Vengalattore, R. Conroy, and M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Beeler, R. Stites, S. Kim, L. Feeney, and S. Bali, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013411 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Loudon, Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, England, 1983).
  9. D. Sesko, T. Walker, and C. Wieman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 946 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Stites, M. McClimans, and S. Bali, “Large atom-density change at constant temperature by increasing trap anisotropy in a dilute magneto-optical trap,” submitted to Opt. Commun.
  11. S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, J. Simán, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3469 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. The time scaling for the data in Fig. 2 seems to agree with that of the one-dimensional theory in Ref. 7. However, this is fortuitous because of a typographical error—the time axis of Fig. 2 in Ref. 7 should be multiplied by 4.
  13. B. Gao, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4139 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Vengalattore, R. Conroy, and M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Beeler, R. Stites, S. Kim, L. Feeney, and S. Bali, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Fleischhauer, Europhys. Lett. 45, 659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, J. Simán, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3469 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

B. Gao, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4139 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

1990

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bali, S.

M. Beeler, R. Stites, S. Kim, L. Feeney, and S. Bali, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, J. Simán, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3469 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Stites, M. McClimans, and S. Bali, “Large atom-density change at constant temperature by increasing trap anisotropy in a dilute magneto-optical trap,” submitted to Opt. Commun.

Beeler, M.

M. Beeler, R. Stites, S. Kim, L. Feeney, and S. Bali, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, K.

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conroy, R.

M. Vengalattore, R. Conroy, and M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feeney, L.

M. Beeler, R. Stites, S. Kim, L. Feeney, and S. Bali, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, Europhys. Lett. 45, 659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foot, C. J.

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, B.

B. Gao, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4139 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, G.

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, D.

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, J. Simán, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3469 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

M. Beeler, R. Stites, S. Kim, L. Feeney, and S. Bali, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loudon, R.

R. Loudon, Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, England, 1983).

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McClimans, M.

R. Stites, M. McClimans, and S. Bali, “Large atom-density change at constant temperature by increasing trap anisotropy in a dilute magneto-optical trap,” submitted to Opt. Commun.

Molisch, A. F.

A. F. Molisch and B. P. Oehry, Radiation Trapping in Atomic Vapours (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1998).

Novikova, I.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oehry, B. P.

A. F. Molisch and B. P. Oehry, Radiation Trapping in Atomic Vapours (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1998).

Prentiss, M.

M. Vengalattore, R. Conroy, and M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sesko, D.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, and C. Wieman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 946 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simán, J.

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, J. Simán, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3469 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stites, R.

M. Beeler, R. Stites, S. Kim, L. Feeney, and S. Bali, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Stites, M. McClimans, and S. Bali, “Large atom-density change at constant temperature by increasing trap anisotropy in a dilute magneto-optical trap,” submitted to Opt. Commun.

Vengalattore, M.

M. Vengalattore, R. Conroy, and M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T.

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, J. Simán, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3469 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sesko, T. Walker, and C. Wieman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 946 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, G. R.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C.

D. Sesko, T. Walker, and C. Wieman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 946 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Europhys. Lett.

M. Fleischhauer, Europhys. Lett. 45, 659 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Phys. Rev. A

M. Beeler, R. Stites, S. Kim, L. Feeney, and S. Bali, Phys. Rev. A 68, 013411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Hillenbrand, C. J. Foot, and K. Burnett, Phys. Rev. A 50, 1479 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bali, D. Hoffmann, J. Simán, and T. Walker, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3469 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gao, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4139 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. Vengalattore, R. Conroy, and M. Prentiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 183001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Loudon, Quantum Theory of Light (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, England, 1983).

R. Stites, M. McClimans, and S. Bali, “Large atom-density change at constant temperature by increasing trap anisotropy in a dilute magneto-optical trap,” submitted to Opt. Commun.

A. F. Molisch and B. P. Oehry, Radiation Trapping in Atomic Vapours (Clarendon, Oxford, England, 1998).

The time scaling for the data in Fig. 2 seems to agree with that of the one-dimensional theory in Ref. 7. However, this is fortuitous because of a typographical error—the time axis of Fig. 2 in Ref. 7 should be multiplied by 4.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for measuring radiation trapping in the intensity correlations of the light scattered from cold atoms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Clear changes in the intensity correlation function g2τ measured as radiation trapping varies. Representative error bars, where significant, are indicated for each data set. To check our counting program and electronics we verified that g2τ=1 for a white-light source (shown) and for a portion of the trapping laser beam scattered directly into the detector (not shown).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical plots of the intensity correlation function g2τ for the same values of radiation trapping as in Fig. 2. Note the change in time scale relative to Fig. 2.

Equations (1)

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g1τρeenth+ρeej=16aj exp-αjδ2τ2/2.

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