Abstract

Lasing at telecommunication wavelengths from annular resonators employing radial Bragg reflectors is demonstrated at room temperature under pulsed optical pumping. Submilliwatt pump threshold levels are observed for resonators with 0.5–1.5-wavelength-wide defects of radii 78 µm. The quality factors of the resonator modal fields are estimated to be of the order of a few thousand. The electromagnetic field is shown to be guided by the defect. Good agreement is found between the measured and the calculated spectra.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2004 (2)

J. Scheuer, W. Green, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Proc. SPIE 5333, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. M. J. Green, J. Scheuer, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 28, 1528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

B. E. Little, T. Chu, and H. A. Haus, Opt. Lett. 23, 1570 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302 (1966).

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benisty, H.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. S.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1995).

Corzine, S. W.

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1995).

DeRose, G.

W. M. J. Green, J. Scheuer, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer, W. Green, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Proc. SPIE 5333, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, W.

J. Scheuer, W. Green, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Proc. SPIE 5333, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

W. M. J. Green, J. Scheuer, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hagarty, J.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Houdre, R.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G. H.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Labilloy, D.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

Madsen, C. K.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: a Signal Processing Approach (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oesterle, U.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. G.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roycroft, B.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, J.

W. M. J. Green, J. Scheuer, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer, W. Green, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Proc. SPIE 5333, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 28, 1528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, A.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. J. M.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, R.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisbuch, C.

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

J. Scheuer, W. Green, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Proc. SPIE 5333, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. M. J. Green, J. Scheuer, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, Opt. Lett. 28, 1528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302 (1966).

Zhao, J. H.

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: a Signal Processing Approach (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1314 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Shaw, B. Roycroft, J. Hagarty, D. Labilloy, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, T. F. Krauss, C. J. M. Smith, R. Stanley, R. Houdre, and U. Oesterle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3051 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. M. J. Green, J. Scheuer, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kim, H. Y. Ryu, H. G. Park, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Choi, Y. H. Lee, and J. S. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2499 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Scheuer and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1555 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

K. S. Yee, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (2)

K. J. Vahala, Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, Nature 425, 944 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Scheuer, W. Green, G. DeRose, and A. Yariv, Proc. SPIE 5333, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: a Signal Processing Approach (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1999).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope images of the fabricated ABRs: A, λ/2-wide high-index defect. The defect is the slightly narrower sixth ring from the center, marked by the arrow; B, 3λ/2-wide high-index defect; C, 3λ/2-wide air defect; D, close up of the reflector layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of the emitted spectrum from the ABR shown in Fig. 1A as a function of pump intensity. Inset, LL curve of the device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A, measured and B, calculated spectral responses of the ABR shown in Fig. 1A. The D modes are confined in the defect; the I modes are confined in one of the rings of the internal reflector; the M modes are not confined to a single ring. FDTD, finite-difference time domain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

IR image of the vertical emission from an ABR. The lasing pattern corresponds to mode M2.

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