Abstract

We report true left-handed (LH) behavior in a composite metamaterial consisting of a periodically arranged split ring resonator (SRR) and wire structures. We demonstrate the magnetic resonance of the SRR structure by comparing the transmission spectra of SRRs with those of closed SRRs. We have confirmed experimentally that the effective plasma frequency of the LH material composed of SRRs and wires is lower than the plasma frequency of the wires. A well-defined LH transmission band with a peak value of -1.2 dB -0.3 dB/cm was obtained. The experimental results agree extremely well with the theoretical calculations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 480 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, P. Markos, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. H. Tanielian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. H. Tanielian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, P. Markos, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 480 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, P. Markos, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, P. Markos, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brock, J. B.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, I. L.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greegor, R. B.

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. H. Tanielian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Houck, A. A.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koltenbah, B. E.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. H. Tanielian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, P. Markos, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McLean, S. J.

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. H. Tanielian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 480 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, P. Markos, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parazzoli, C. G.

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. H. Tanielian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 480 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 480 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 480 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, P. Markos, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanielian, M.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanielian, M. H.

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. H. Tanielian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 480 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, K. Aydin, P. Markos, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 120 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Li, S. J. McLean, R. B. Greegor, C. G. Parazzoli, and M. H. Tanielian, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2535 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 504 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of (a) a single SRR, (b) a CSRR, (c) a periodic CMM composed of SRRs on one side and wires on the other side of a dielectric board.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmission spectra of a periodic SRR medium and a periodic CSRR medium from 3 to 14 GHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectra of wires and closed CMMs (CCMMs) achieved by periodic arrangement of CSRRs and wires.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of SRRs, wires, and open CMMs: (a) experiment and (b) simulation.

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