Abstract

We investigated the propagation of light in biological tissues that have aligned cylindrical microstructures (e.g., muscle, skin, bone, tooth). Because of pronounced anisotropic light scattering by cylindrical structures (e.g., myofibrils and collagen fibers) the spatially resolved reflectance exhibits a directional dependence that is different close to and far from the incident source. We applied Monte Carlo simulations, using the phase function of an infinitely long cylinder, to explain quantitatively the experimental results. These observations have consequences for noninvasive determination of the optical properties of tissue as well as for the diagnosis of early tissue alterations.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 35, 2304 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. Gandjbakhche, in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper FH26.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Heino, S. Arridge, J. Sikora, and E. Somersalo, Phys. Rev. E 68, 031908 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heino, S. Arridge, J. Sikora, and E. Somersalo, Phys. Rev. E 68, 031908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and H. Hibst, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, N7 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, and R. Hibst, Proc. SPIE 4432, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1996

1992

H. A. Yousif and E. Boutros, Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S.

J. Heino, S. Arridge, J. Sikora, and E. Somersalo, Phys. Rev. E 68, 031908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Boutros, E.

H. A. Yousif and E. Boutros, Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chernomordik, V.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. Gandjbakhche, in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper FH26.

Dagdug, L.

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diebolder, R.

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and H. Hibst, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, N7 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eidsath, A.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. Gandjbakhche, in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper FH26.

Essenpreis, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forster, F. K.

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and H. Hibst, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, N7 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, and R. Hibst, Proc. SPIE 4432, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gandjbakhche, A.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. Gandjbakhche, in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper FH26.

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassan, M.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. Gandjbakhche, in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper FH26.

Heino, J.

J. Heino, S. Arridge, J. Sikora, and E. Somersalo, Phys. Rev. E 68, 031908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, H.

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and H. Hibst, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, N7 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Kienle, A.

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and H. Hibst, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, N7 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, and R. Hibst, Proc. SPIE 4432, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 35, 2304 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krämer, U.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lilge, L.

Lin, S.-P.

Marquez, G.

Nickell, S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, L. Lilge, M. S. Patterson, R. Hibst, R. Steiner, and B. C. Wilson, Appl. Opt. 35, 2304 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, A.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. Gandjbakhche, in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper FH26.

Schwartz, J. A.

Sikora, J.

J. Heino, S. Arridge, J. Sikora, and E. Somersalo, Phys. Rev. E 68, 031908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. Gandjbakhche, in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper FH26.

Somersalo, E.

J. Heino, S. Arridge, J. Sikora, and E. Somersalo, Phys. Rev. E 68, 031908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, R.

Sviridov, A. P.

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. Gandjbakhche, in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper FH26.

Thomsen, S. L.

Wang, L. V.

Weiss, G. H.

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Yousif, H. A.

H. A. Yousif and E. Boutros, Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Comput. Phys. Commun.

H. A. Yousif and E. Boutros, Comput. Phys. Commun. 69, 406 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

L. Dagdug, G. H. Weiss, and A. H. Gandjbakhche, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1361 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Krämer, and M. S. Patterson, Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, F. K. Forster, R. Diebolder, and H. Hibst, Phys. Med. Biol. 48, N7 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E

J. Heino, S. Arridge, J. Sikora, and E. Somersalo, Phys. Rev. E 68, 031908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

F. K. Forster, A. Kienle, and R. Hibst, Proc. SPIE 4432, 103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. P. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, and A. Gandjbakhche, in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2004), paper FH26.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rx,y pattern (in arbitrary units) of a porcine artery. An unpolarized He–Ne laser at λ=633 nm served as the source, and the reemitted light was imaged onto a CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Rx,y pattern mm-2 obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of a semi-infinite turbid medium containing cylinders along the x axis with (a) Δη=10, (b) Δη=20, and (c) for an isotropic distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rx,y pattern mm-2 obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of a semi-infinite turbid medium containing isotropic scatterers and cylinders along the x axis with Δη=0.

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