Abstract

Back-focal-plane detection of micrometer-sized beads offers subnanometer resolution for single-molecule, optical trapping experiments. However, laser beam-pointing instability and mechanical drift of the microscope limit the resolution of optical-trapping experiments. By combining two infrared lasers with improved differential beam-pointing stability <0.05 µrad, we simultaneously measure and subtract the motion of the microscope stage, leading to a resolution of <0.1 nm in 1 ms and stability of 0.5 nm over 60 s. Repeated steps of 0.4 nm at 1 Hz are resolved with a signal-to-noise ratio of 25.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003 (4)

J. W. Shaevitz, E. A. Abbondanzieri, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 426, 684 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, Science 300, 2061 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, Methods Enzymol. 361, 134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, Science 301, 1914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

C. Veigel, L. M. Coluccio, J. D. Jontes, J. C. Sparrow, R. A. Milligan, and J. E. Molloy, Nature 398, 530 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. Stelzer, and J. K. Horber, Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

S. C. Kuo, J. Gelles, E. Steuer, and M. P. Sheetz, J. Cell. Sci. Suppl. 14, 135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbondanzieri, E. A.

J. W. Shaevitz, E. A. Abbondanzieri, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 426, 684 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, S. M.

J. W. Shaevitz, E. A. Abbondanzieri, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 426, 684 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, Science 301, 1914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bustamante, C.

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, Methods Enzymol. 361, 134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coluccio, L. M.

C. Veigel, L. M. Coluccio, J. D. Jontes, J. C. Sparrow, R. A. Milligan, and J. E. Molloy, Nature 398, 530 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, Methods Enzymol. 361, 134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dalal, R. V.

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, Science 301, 1914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

Florin, E. L.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. Stelzer, and J. K. Horber, Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forkey, J. N.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, Science 300, 2061 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelles, J.

S. C. Kuo, J. Gelles, E. Steuer, and M. P. Sheetz, J. Cell. Sci. Suppl. 14, 135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittes, F.

Goldman, Y. E.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, Science 300, 2061 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, S. P.

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ha, T.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, Science 300, 2061 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horber, J. K.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. Stelzer, and J. K. Horber, Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jontes, J. D.

C. Veigel, L. M. Coluccio, J. D. Jontes, J. C. Sparrow, R. A. Milligan, and J. E. Molloy, Nature 398, 530 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, S. C.

S. C. Kuo, J. Gelles, E. Steuer, and M. P. Sheetz, J. Cell. Sci. Suppl. 14, 135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Landick, R.

J. W. Shaevitz, E. A. Abbondanzieri, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 426, 684 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinney, S. A.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, Science 300, 2061 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milligan, R. A.

C. Veigel, L. M. Coluccio, J. D. Jontes, J. C. Sparrow, R. A. Milligan, and J. E. Molloy, Nature 398, 530 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsis, P. G.

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, Science 301, 1914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molloy, J. E.

C. Veigel, L. M. Coluccio, J. D. Jontes, J. C. Sparrow, R. A. Milligan, and J. E. Molloy, Nature 398, 530 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perkins, T. T.

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, Science 301, 1914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pralle, A.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. Stelzer, and J. K. Horber, Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prummer, M.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. Stelzer, and J. K. Horber, Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saenger, W.

W. Saenger, Principles of Nucleic Acids (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988).

Schmidt, C. F.

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 23, 7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnapp, B. J.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Selvin, P. R.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, Science 300, 2061 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaevitz, J. W.

J. W. Shaevitz, E. A. Abbondanzieri, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 426, 684 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheetz, M. P.

S. C. Kuo, J. Gelles, E. Steuer, and M. P. Sheetz, J. Cell. Sci. Suppl. 14, 135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. B.

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, Methods Enzymol. 361, 134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sparrow, J. C.

C. Veigel, L. M. Coluccio, J. D. Jontes, J. C. Sparrow, R. A. Milligan, and J. E. Molloy, Nature 398, 530 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. Stelzer, and J. K. Horber, Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steuer, E.

S. C. Kuo, J. Gelles, E. Steuer, and M. P. Sheetz, J. Cell. Sci. Suppl. 14, 135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veigel, C.

C. Veigel, L. M. Coluccio, J. D. Jontes, J. C. Sparrow, R. A. Milligan, and J. E. Molloy, Nature 398, 530 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visscher, K.

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

Yildiz, A.

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, Science 300, 2061 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Visscher, S. P. Gross, and S. M. Block, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Cell. Sci. Suppl. (1)

S. C. Kuo, J. Gelles, E. Steuer, and M. P. Sheetz, J. Cell. Sci. Suppl. 14, 135 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Methods Enzymol. (1)

S. B. Smith, Y. Cui, and C. Bustamante, Methods Enzymol. 361, 134 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. Stelzer, and J. K. Horber, Microsc. Res. Tech. 44, 378 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (4)

J. Gelles, B. J. Schnapp, and M. P. Sheetz, Nature 331, 450 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, C. F. Schmidt, B. J. Schnapp, and S. M. Block, Nature 365, 721 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Veigel, L. M. Coluccio, J. D. Jontes, J. C. Sparrow, R. A. Milligan, and J. E. Molloy, Nature 398, 530 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Shaevitz, E. A. Abbondanzieri, R. Landick, and S. M. Block, Nature 426, 684 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (2)

A. Yildiz, J. N. Forkey, S. A. McKinney, T. Ha, Y. E. Goldman, and P. R. Selvin, Science 300, 2061 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Perkins, R. V. Dalal, P. G. Mitsis, and S. M. Block, Science 301, 1914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. Saenger, Principles of Nucleic Acids (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout for differential back-focal-plane detection by use of two diode lasers. Shaded components are in optically conjugate planes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Position records of two beads measured separately by two detector laser beams at 10 Hz. Subtracting out the stage noise kept the difference (bottom trace) stable to 0.5 nm over 60 s. (b) In a separate test, two records of bead motion recorded at 1 kHz, and the difference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Two laser beams (blue and gray) measure the position of the same bead at 10 Hz. The blue laser beam is moved in 0.4-nm steps with a PZT mirror. Subtracting the common noise reveals 0.4-nm steps (red). Traces were moved vertically for clarity of presentation. (b) Individual 0.4-nm steps resolved at 10 Hz. (c) Trace of PDDs for the differential signal (red) and the normal signal (blue). (d) Fourier transform of the PDD histograms in (c). PSD, power spectral density.

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