Abstract

We show that the addition of a polarization controller and bias differential group delay to a spectral polarimeter increases the amount of polarization information that can be extracted from a Stokes spectrum measurement. We use this biased spectral polarimetry on 40-Gbit/s signals to measure the polarization mode dispersion of the optical fiber through which they propagate. Our measurements do not require any control of the polarization at the fiber input. Averaging measurements from several settings of the polarization controller yields improved accuracy, and, after data rejection is applied, both the accuracy and the number of valid data points is increased when using several measurements.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1987).
  2. R. Noe, M. Rehage, and F. Tian, Electron. Lett. 31, 825 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. I. Belyaev, V. A. Zaitseva, P. V. Komar, and V. I. Shuplyak, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 533 (1991).
  4. K. Oka and T. Kato, Opt. Lett. 24, 1475 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. U. Keller, in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, J. Trujillo-Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, and F. Sanchez, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 2002), pp. 303–354.
  6. L. Moller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta, and S. Wielandy, Electron. Lett. 38, 583 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Noutsios and S. Poirier, in National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference 2001 (Telcordia Technologies, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 1342–1347.
  8. D. Penninckx, S. Lanne, and H. Bülow, in 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), paper We.P.34.
  9. F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere, and D. Penninckx, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 275–278.
  10. H. Kogelnik, L. Nelson, and R. Jopson, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002), pp. 725–861.

2002 (1)

L. Moller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta, and S. Wielandy, Electron. Lett. 38, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

R. Noe, M. Rehage, and F. Tian, Electron. Lett. 31, 825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. I. Belyaev, V. A. Zaitseva, P. V. Komar, and V. I. Shuplyak, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 533 (1991).

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1987).

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1987).

Belyaev, B. I.

B. I. Belyaev, V. A. Zaitseva, P. V. Komar, and V. I. Shuplyak, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 533 (1991).

Bruyere, F.

F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere, and D. Penninckx, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 275–278.

Bülow, H.

D. Penninckx, S. Lanne, and H. Bülow, in 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), paper We.P.34.

Chandrasekhar, S.

L. Moller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta, and S. Wielandy, Electron. Lett. 38, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, R.

L. Moller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta, and S. Wielandy, Electron. Lett. 38, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Francia, C.

F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere, and D. Penninckx, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 275–278.

Jopson, R.

H. Kogelnik, L. Nelson, and R. Jopson, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002), pp. 725–861.

Kato, T.

Keller, C. U.

C. U. Keller, in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, J. Trujillo-Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, and F. Sanchez, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 2002), pp. 303–354.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, L. Nelson, and R. Jopson, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002), pp. 725–861.

Komar, P. V.

B. I. Belyaev, V. A. Zaitseva, P. V. Komar, and V. I. Shuplyak, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 533 (1991).

Lanne, S.

D. Penninckx, S. Lanne, and H. Bülow, in 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), paper We.P.34.

Moller, L.

L. Moller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta, and S. Wielandy, Electron. Lett. 38, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L.

H. Kogelnik, L. Nelson, and R. Jopson, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002), pp. 725–861.

Noe, R.

R. Noe, M. Rehage, and F. Tian, Electron. Lett. 31, 825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noutsios, P.

P. Noutsios and S. Poirier, in National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference 2001 (Telcordia Technologies, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 1342–1347.

Oka, K.

Penninckx, D.

D. Penninckx, S. Lanne, and H. Bülow, in 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), paper We.P.34.

F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere, and D. Penninckx, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 275–278.

Poirier, S.

P. Noutsios and S. Poirier, in National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference 2001 (Telcordia Technologies, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 1342–1347.

Rehage, M.

R. Noe, M. Rehage, and F. Tian, Electron. Lett. 31, 825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roy, F.

F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere, and D. Penninckx, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 275–278.

Shuplyak, V. I.

B. I. Belyaev, V. A. Zaitseva, P. V. Komar, and V. I. Shuplyak, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 533 (1991).

Tian, F.

R. Noe, M. Rehage, and F. Tian, Electron. Lett. 31, 825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, P.

L. Moller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta, and S. Wielandy, Electron. Lett. 38, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wielandy, S.

L. Moller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta, and S. Wielandy, Electron. Lett. 38, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zaitseva, V. A.

B. I. Belyaev, V. A. Zaitseva, P. V. Komar, and V. I. Shuplyak, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 533 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. Noe, M. Rehage, and F. Tian, Electron. Lett. 31, 825 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Moller, P. Westbrook, S. Chandrasekhar, R. Dutta, and S. Wielandy, Electron. Lett. 38, 583 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

B. I. Belyaev, V. A. Zaitseva, P. V. Komar, and V. I. Shuplyak, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 58, 533 (1991).

Other (6)

C. U. Keller, in Astrophysical Spectropolarimetry, J. Trujillo-Bueno, F. Moreno-Insertis, and F. Sanchez, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, England, 2002), pp. 303–354.

P. Noutsios and S. Poirier, in National Fiber Optics Engineers Conference 2001 (Telcordia Technologies, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), pp. 1342–1347.

D. Penninckx, S. Lanne, and H. Bülow, in 27th European Conference on Optical Communication (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 2001), paper We.P.34.

F. Roy, C. Francia, F. Bruyere, and D. Penninckx, in Optical Fiber Communications Conference (OFC), 1999 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 275–278.

H. Kogelnik, L. Nelson, and R. Jopson, in Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 2002), pp. 725–861.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, New York, 1987).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Measurement setup: Tx, 40-Gbit/s transmitter. Inset, SP components: rotating half-wave plate (1/2) and quarter-wave plate (1/4) and polarizer (Pol) in front of an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). (b) Poor launch without DGD. (c) Improved launch with DGD and the PC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sphere plots of Stokes spectra (top), and DGD and S0 as a function of wavelength (bottom) for a, poor setting of the PC and b, good setting of the PC. Solid curve, accurate laser MMM measurement (same curve in each plot); curve with +, DGD-biased SP measurement; dashed curve, S0 power spectrum (same curve in each plot; arbitrary units).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Single SP DGD measurement, (b) DGD averaged over six SP DGD measurements, and (c) average of six culled SP DGD measurements. Legend applies to all plots. Solid curve, accurate MMM DGD (same curve in each plot); dotted curve, 40-Gbit/s signal power spectrum S0 (same curve in each plot; arbitrary units); curve with +, SP DGD measurement; squares, measurements surviving cull.

Equations (3)

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Ωtotal=ΩDGD+RDGDRPCΩfiber,
DGDlink=Ωtotal-ΩDGD.
θave-π/2+σδθPSP+δθstdev<θcutoff,

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