Abstract

We present an analysis for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography that facilitates the unrestricted use of fiber and fiber-optic components throughout an interferometer and yields sample birefringence, diattenuation, and relative optic axis orientation. We use a novel Jones matrix approach that compares the polarization states of light reflected from the sample surface with those reflected from within a biological sample for pairs of depth scans. The incident polarization alternated between two states that are perpendicular in a Poincaré sphere representation to ensure proper detection of tissue birefringence regardless of optical fiber contributions. The method was validated by comparing the calculated diattenuation of a polarizing sheet, chicken tendon, and muscle with that obtained by independent measurement. The relative importance of diattenuation versus birefringence to angular displacement of Stokes vectors on a Poincaré sphere was quantified.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2003 (2)

2002 (5)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

Arfken, G.

G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

Bernabeu, E.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

de Boer, J. F.

Everett, M. J.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gil, J. J.

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

Gotzinger, E.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Jiao, S. L.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malekafzali, A.

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C. E.

Schoenenberger, K.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, L. H. V.

Wang, L. V.

Yao, G.

Yu, W.

Zhao, Y. H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

S. L. Jiao and L. V. Wang, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer and T. E. Milner, J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 359 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (9)

Optik (1)

J. J. Gil and E. Bernabeu, Optik 76, 67 (1987).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1985).

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Comment on ‘Optical-fiber-based Mueller optical coherence tomography,’” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the fiber-based PS-OCT system: p.c., polarization controller; p., polarizer; p.m., polarization modulator; o.c., optical circulator; R.S.O.D., rapid-scanning optical delay; f.p.b., fiber polarizing beam splitter. Jin, Jout, and JS are the Jones matrix representations for the one-way optical path from the polarization modulator to the scanning handpiece, the one-way optical path back from the scanning handpiece to the detectors, and the round-trip path through some depth in the sample, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of the PS-OCT-derived relative optic axis orientation of a polarizing sheet as a function of its set orientation. Inset, the same optic axes plotted on a Poincaré sphere.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-pass diattenuation as a function of depth. The open triangles and squares represent control diattenuation values of chicken tendon and muscle, respectively, calculated from comparison of the reflectivity profiles for linear incident polarization states along and orthogonal to the fiber direction. The solid triangles and squares are diattenuation values derived from PS-OCT images acquired from the same tissues. Linear least-squares fits are shown for all plots.

Equations (1)

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expiΔψ1 P1 expiη/200P2 exp-iη/2=CθSθ-SθCθ exp-iϕ00expiϕ H1H2V1V2×H1expiαH2V1expiαV2-1expiϕ00exp-iϕ×Cθ-SθSθCθ.

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