Abstract

Endoscopes employing a single optical fiber may have advantages over conventional fiber-bundle or CCD array imaging techniques, including the potential for greater flexibility and miniaturization. Although single-mode fibers can provide superior resolution compared with multimode fibers, they are prone to increased speckle noise and suffer from limited optical throughput and reduced depth of field. We demonstrate the use of a double-clad fiber for single-mode illumination and multimode detection to achieve high-resolution, reduced-speckle imaging with high optical throughput and a large depth of field.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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References

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2003

2002

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, Opt. Lett. 27, 412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

1992

1987

Bouma, B. E.

Carlini, A. R.

Dabbs, T.

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984).

Delaney, P. M.

Dickensheets, D. L.

Glass, M.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).

Harris, M. R.

Iftimia, N.

Juskaitis, R.

King, R. G.

Kino, G. S.

Seibel, E. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

Smithwick, Q. Y. J.

E. J. Seibel and Q. Y. J. Smithwick, Lasers Surg. Med. 30, 177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Wilson, T.

Yelin, D.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical setup for spectrally encoded imaging with double-clad fiber: DCF, double-clad fiber; L0, L1, L2, lenses; G1, G2, diffraction gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Standard white-light image of the face of a doll. The scale bar represents 2 mm. Spectrally encoded imaging of the face of a doll with the following configurations: b, SM-SM; c, SM-MM; d, MM-MM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a, Signal collection with the double-clad fiber. The lens images the scattered light on the face of the inner cladding. b, Normalized SM-MM transverse (solid curve, simulation; filled circle, measurement) and axial (dashed curve, simulation; filled square, measurement) spot sizes plotted as a function of inner-cladding diameter. c, Speckle contrast (solid curve, simulation; filled circle, measurement) and normalized total signal intensity (dashed curve, simulation; filled diamond, measurement). All the SM-MM values are normalized to those of the SM-SM case. Error bars represent 1 standard deviation.

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