Abstract

We describe a quantitative phase-imaging interferometer in which phase shifting and noise cancellation are performed by an active feedback loop using a reference laser. Depth gating via low-coherence light allows phase measurement from weakly reflecting biological samples. We demonstrate phase images from a test structure and living cells.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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2003

J. C. Wyant, Opt. Photon. News 14(4), 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

K. Creath, in Progress in Optics, Vol. XXVI, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1998), pp. 349–393.

1997

1995

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952

H. G. Davies and M. H. F. Wilkins, Nature 169, 541 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

T. Akkin, D. P. Dave, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander III, Proc. SPIE 4616, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

Beaurepaire, E.

Boccara, A. C.

Boppart, S. A.

Burge, J. H.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Creath, K.

K. Creath, in Progress in Optics, Vol. XXVI, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1998), pp. 349–393.

Dasari, R. R.

Dave, D.

Dave, D. P.

T. Akkin, D. P. Dave, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander III, Proc. SPIE 4616, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Dave and T. E. Milner, Opt. Lett. 25, 227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davies, H. G.

H. G. Davies and M. H. F. Wilkins, Nature 169, 541 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Dubois, A.

Dunn, G. A.

D. Zicha and G. A. Dunn, J. Microsc. 179, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frejlich, J.

Freschi, A. A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, M. S.

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Kärtner, F. X.

Koliopoulos, C. L.

C. L. Koliopoulos, Proc. SPIE 1531, 119 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Morgner, U.

Nelson, J. S.

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rylander III, H. G.

T. Akkin, D. P. Dave, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander III, Proc. SPIE 4616, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vabre, L.

Wax, A.

Wilkins, M. H. F.

H. G. Davies and M. H. F. Wilkins, Nature 169, 541 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant, Opt. Photon. News 14(4), 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Zhao, C.

Zicha, D.

D. Zicha and G. A. Dunn, J. Microsc. 179, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Microsc.

D. Zicha and G. A. Dunn, J. Microsc. 179, 11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

H. G. Davies and M. H. F. Wilkins, Nature 169, 541 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

J. C. Wyant, Opt. Photon. News 14(4), 36 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

C. L. Koliopoulos, Proc. SPIE 1531, 119 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Akkin, D. P. Dave, T. E. Milner, and H. G. Rylander III, Proc. SPIE 4616, 9 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

K. Creath, in Progress in Optics, Vol. XXVI, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1998), pp. 349–393.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interferometer setup: SLDs, superluminescent diodes; He–Ne, helium–neon lasers; Ls, lenses; BS, beam splitter; OBJs, objective lenses; DBS1, DBS2, dichroic beam splitters. Dotted lines, beam path for the SLDs; dashed lines, beam path for the He–Ne.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferometer phase measurement of a test sample with a feedback loop open and closed (time 0–10 min and 20–30) and closed (time 10–20 min).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflection phase image at the corner of a microfabricated silicon structure. The phase distribution is expressed as a surface height profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Quantitative phase image of a confluent monolayer of HeLa cells.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Detail of the double-pass sample configuration for the image in Fig. 4. Dashed lines, illumination beam; solid lines, rays scattered from one point on the sample, showing the focus of the objective. The He–Ne locking beam is not shown.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V1t=V0 sinϕ0-ϕPZTt+ϕNt,
V2t=V0 cosϕ0-ϕPZTt+ϕNt,
Vet=cos θV1-sin θV2=V0 sinϕ0-ϕPZTt+ϕNt-θ,
ϕx,y=tan-1Iπx,y-I0x,ysinπr/2Iπ/2x,y-I3π/2x,y-Iπx,y-I0x,ycosπr/2-π2r.

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