Abstract

We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, optical bistability on a highly integrated silicon device, using a 5µm-radius ring resonator. The strong light-confinement nature of the resonator induces nonlinear optical response with low pump power. We show that the optical bistability allows all-optical functionalities, such as switching and memory with microsecond time response and a modulation depth of 10 dB, driven by pump power as low as 45 µW. Silicon optical bistability relies on a fast thermal nonlinear optical effect presenting a 500-kHz modulation bandwidth.

© 2004 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2004

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 28, 1302 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. M. Agarwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. Warren, W. Gibbons, K. Komatsu, D. Sarid, D. Hendricks, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

1981

Absil, P. P.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

A. M. Agarwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Black, M. R.

A. M. Agarwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

A. M. Agarwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

A. M. Agarwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W.

M. Warren, W. Gibbons, K. Komatsu, D. Sarid, D. Hendricks, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

M. Warren, W. Gibbons, K. Komatsu, D. Sarid, D. Hendricks, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

Grover, R.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hendricks, D.

M. Warren, W. Gibbons, K. Komatsu, D. Sarid, D. Hendricks, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ho, P.-T.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T. A.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, F. G.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L. C.

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Agarwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, K.

M. Warren, W. Gibbons, K. Komatsu, D. Sarid, D. Hendricks, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Agarwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R. C.

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luan, H. C.

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescul, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarid, D.

M. Warren, W. Gibbons, K. Komatsu, D. Sarid, D. Hendricks, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, Opt. Lett. 6, 552 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. D.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, M.

M. Warren, W. Gibbons, K. Komatsu, D. Sarid, D. Hendricks, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-C.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Warren, M.

M. Warren, W. Gibbons, K. Komatsu, D. Sarid, D. Hendricks, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Warren, W. Gibbons, K. Komatsu, D. Sarid, D. Hendricks, H. M. Gibbs, and M. Sugimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, Electron. Lett. 28, 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. Van, T. A. Ibrahim, P. P. Absil, F. G. Johnson, R. Grover, and P.-T. Ho, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 705 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1366 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. M. Agarwal, L. Liao, J. S. Foresi, M. R. Black, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescul, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

K. Wada, H. C. Luan, D. R. C. Lim, and L. C. Kimerling, Proc. SPIE 4870, 437 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, Proc. SPIE 704, 32 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1985).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrograph of a Si ring resonator laterally coupled to a single waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmittance spectrum of the quasi-TE mode of a Si ring resonator showing only two of its resonances: λresA=1561.87 nm and λresB=1580.04 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hysteresis curve for the quasi-TE mode of a SOI ring resonator excited at λ0 = 1562.0 nm. Markers define curve points related to the transmission spectra in the insets: ➊ unshifted spectrum on the linear region before hysteresis loop, ➋ shifted spectrum due to high-input increasing power, ➌ resonance shifted to pump wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

All-optical memory functionality on a Si ring resonator driven by optical bistability at λ0=1562.0 nm. Inset, hysteresis curve. Markers make links between the bistability curve and time-domain plots:  high-output state, Pin=800 µW; high-to-low transient, Pin=1600 µW; low-output state, Pin=800 µW; low-to-high transient, Pin=700 µW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

All-optical switching on a pump–probe scheme with λpump=1561.96 nm and λprobe=1580.24 nm at 100 kHz. Inset, hysteresis curve for λpump=1561.96 nm. Markers show the points in the bistability curve between which the pump power is modulated:  high-output state, low-output state.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the quasi-TE transmission spectra on input power. The resonance shift shows good agreement with a linear absorption fit.

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